Glossary

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1st Screen Device

The first display screen ever viewed by the user. It can be an electronic device or not.

Example: A TV set or a movie theater screen. For the purpose of SAM, this can be the Philips SmartTV.

1st Screen Component

This component will be used on a 1st Screen device. It defines the 1st Screen specific components which need to be added on top of the Generic Dashboard component.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Dashboard Viewer, Sync, 1st Screen Launcher, Inter-Device Communication - 1st Screen, 1st Screen Interaction.

1st Screen Dashboard

The Dashboard shown to the End Users on the screen representing their main activity. More in general, each screen a User is using can become his 1st Screen. The SAM Dashboard is present on both 1st Screen and 2nd Screen, not necessarily with the same implementation.

Example: The User can watch a movie on the 1st Screen, while getting related information and social interaction on a 2nd Screen which could be a smartphone or tablet. The main activity here is watching the movie which is taken care of by the 1st Screen. The activities which are linked to the Content on the 1st Screen are presented on the 2nd Screen. This does not withhold that there can be no related activities on the 1st Screen itself.

1st Screen Interaction

This Subcomponent is part of 1st Screen component.This component takes care of the interaction with the End User. E.g. what happens if End User presses keys on his remote control?

1st Screen Launcher

This Subcomponent is part of 1st Screen component.The 1st Screen Launcher will handle Network Discovery and Launch (finding of SAM enabled devices and interaction start) of the 2nd Screen Launcher. The 1st Screen Launcher is also able to launch the Dashboard Viewer subcomponent, present on the 1st Screen.

2nd Screen Device

2nd Screen device is a second electronic device used by television viewers to connect to a program they're watching. A 2nd Screen is often a smartphone or tablet, where a special complementary app may allow the viewer to interact with a television program in a different way - the tablet or smartphone becomes a TV companion device.

2nd Screen Component

This component will be used to display content delivered by the SAM platform, especially linked content corresponding to the media that the user is consuming in the 1st Screen. This component will act as a container for the Generic Dashboard component and consist of different subcomponents that enrich the Dashboard functionality and allow advanced interaction of the user with and through their 2nd Screen device.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Device Controller, Voice Dialogue, Routing, Inter-Device Communication-2nd Screen, Dashboard Viewer, Sync, 2nd Screen Launcher.

To use a mobile Device, such as a tablet or smartphone to provide an enhanced viewing experience for Content on another Device, such as a TV.

2nd Screen Dashboard

SAM Dashboard shown to the End User on the 2nd Screen device through which the User will be able to interact with the Content and media being reproduced, and also configure his User Preferences of SAM.

Example: The User, while watching to a film, can glance at her smartphone to look at Wikipedia links regarding the film or suggested links for related merchandise.

2nd Screen Launcher

This Subcomponent is part of 2nd Screen component. It will be used to initialise the communication between the 1st Screen and the 2nd Screen components.The user will be able to start the installed 2nd Screen using the 1st Screen and vice versa. A typical case is to receive a notification in a tablet informing that the video started in the 1st Screen has 2nd Screen information available. .

3rd Party Apps

A third-party software component is a reusable software component developed to be either freely distributed or sold by an entity other than the original vendor of the development platform.

Abstract Presentation Layer

Also known as APL, it is an abstract version of the Dashboard which will work on 1st Screen and 2nd Screen devices. It is a layer that enables the management of specific Device instances' media, Content and context data.

Example: The Multi-device Dashboard is an Abstract Presentation Layer.

Access Asset

The act of accessing the Content of an Asset. Content from different sources should be exposed and defined into a unified Asset description, protocol and data format to be easily syndicated and distributed.

Example: Access a video about a TV series in order to create the respective metadata so it can be used later by SAM Platform.

Access Control

Management of access to a resource, such as a file, determining access rights and restrictions.

Example: The UNIX file system access rights specification provides user-based and group-based Access Control to resources at the level of files, and of three different types of access to files (read, write, and execute).

Access Policy

Published principles on which basis a platform operates with regard to allowing access to its Functions, APIs or data repositories.

Example: A web-based platform publishes an Access Policy which defines forms of access to its APIs or data/information on the basis of certain conditions.

Access Service

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components.The subcomponent Access Service will provide the user credentials needed to retrieve and submit social content.

Activity Logger

This Subcomponent is part of Data Services API component.This subcomponent is used to store and check specific activity generated inside the Syndication Manager component related to assets consumption (for accountability purposes).

ACID

Stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability. In computer science, ACID is a set of properties that guarantee that database transactions are processed reliably. In the context of databases, a single logical operation on the data is called a transaction.

Example: A transfer of funds from one bank account to another, even involving multiple changes such as debiting one account and crediting another, is a single transaction.

Acquire

The process of sampling Content from an Asset in order to classify, compose and aggregate them in the future.

Example: Accessing a TV series make a preview of it.

ACR

Stands for Automatic Content Recognition (ACR), a protocol to enable smartphone apps to uniquely identify a broadcast show.

Actor

An actor, in UML, refers to a specific role played by a user or any other system that interacts with but is external to the system.

Example: There are two actors in this UML diagram, one is a System Administrator, the other is an End User.

Analytics

Analytics is the component in charge of reporting to the different stakeholders. These reports will be based on Business Intelligence (BI) and advanced Social Mining techniques such as social graph analysis and natural language processing.

Android Software Development Kit

The Android SDK provides you the API libraries and developer tools necessary to build, test, and debug apps for Android.

Annotate Content

The process of including additional information (Metadata) to an external Content that is going to be integrated in the SAM Platform.

Example: Annotate a TV program in order to create extra information about the content.

Administration Services

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. The provided services are for the administration of the Cloud Storage, e.g. to add, modify or remove a specific database to or from the “External databases”.

Adventure

ADaptive Virtual ENterprise ManufacTURing Environment (Adventure) is Small or Medium-Scale Focused Research Project (STREP) funded by the European Seventh Framework Program in Virtual Factories and Enterprises. The goal is the creation of a framework that provides the tools to combine factories in a pluggable way to manufacture a particular product.

API

Stands for Application Programming Interface (API). An API specifies how some software Components should interact with each other.

Example: Twitter REST API provides functionalities to incorporate Twitter interaction into third party applications: search tweets, send tweets, access users public profile, etc.

APL

Stands for Abstract Presentation Layer.

App

A small, specialised and targeted programme that is downloaded onto mobile devices or Smart TVs.

App Developer

App developers are third party companies who specialise in the field of mobile software creation and/or development and either market the app themselves or, more likely, act as a consultancy for a party interested in having some kind of software or app designed for them. It can also mean third party service providers such as a public website or app developers working for a service provider.

ARPU

Stands for Average Revenue Per User.

ASR

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component.The ASR is used on demand by the Voice Dialogue through Interpretation subcomponent and it is treated as a black box, meaning that no interference is made into its internal processes

Asset

A physical or digital entity that is owned by someone or something which is considered valuable and usually copyrighted, such as images, music, videos, audios, animations, text items, etc. In the case of Digital Media Assets, it means the Content item and associated Metadata.

Example: A digital image, a physical product (e.g., a DVD, a book, etc.), a digital MP4 file, a tweet, a Social Media Comment, a Wikipedia page, a JPEG, a digital video content item, etc. which can be protected and managed by a Broadcaster using a Media Asset management system.

Asset Aggregation and Composition

The process of aggregating and composing different Assets to obtain a complex enriched Asset, combining the data included in the previous ones.

Example: Aggregation of a TV series with news about the program or the actors involved in this TV series.

Asset and Service Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component.This subcomponent is in charge of providing the necessary methods to support the different functionalities implemented in Marketplace UI in order to search/enrich/buy assets and services that Actors may need.

Asset Classification

Classification of Assets is the procedure of organizing the assets in a formal-semantic way in order to enforce the structure of the content stored in SAM platform.

Example: Classify a TV programm into Comedy section.

Asset Content

Content and/or Metadata contained in an SAM Asset.

Example: The date of creation of the Asset is a sort of Metadata which is part of the Asset Content.

Asset Discovery

This Subcomponent is part of Semantic Services component and based on the Semantic Resources Explorer subcomponent, it will be able to suggest Assets from incoming requests.

Asset Editor

This User Interface is part of the Linker component. A Component that provides a User Interface which allows to edit Assets, offering the functionalities necessary for Content Providers to handle the aggregation, composition, annotation and service of digital Assets.

Example: The Asset Editor allows the aggregation of a TV series with news about the program or the actors.

Asset Enablers

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component. In order to provide the required dynamicity and access to multiple types of content during the loading process, Asset Enablers will enhance the asset loader functionality so as to be able to access and manipulate all types of assets, including the ones that may be supported in the future.

Asset Loader

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component. During the content editing process, this component will be responsible for providing the content for linking from all respective sources, such as the SAM Marketplace, Social Components and Cloud Storage, based on search criteria posed by the editor through the front-end.

Assets Marketplace

This Component is an online marketplace where Users and resellers can find different Assets that are published to the [[Glossary#SAM Platform|SAM Platform] by Asset Providers. At the Assets Marketplace, the User can obtain the Assets they are interested in either freely or by paying for them, depending on the distribution model. The Assets Marketplace will allow finding related Assets, commenting and recommending.

Example: An online Assets Marketplace offers different Assets, which may have been aggregated from Content Providers and resellers which can Discover and link to related Assets, Comments and Recommendations, creating Complex Assets which can be offered for free or on a commercial basis.

Asset Module Configurator

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component. Through this subcomponent, the actors will be able to enable additional module types (that will represented afterwards as widgets) for the GUI and Services.

Asset Preview

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component. This subcomponent provides a preview of the content that has been linked.

Asset Profiler

This User Interface is part of Semantic Services component. An editor tool that will be used by Media Broadcasters, Asset Providers and Information Brokers in order to supervise those contents that have been automatically characterised during the Data Characterisation process.

Asset Provider

A company, which owns a Content and provides them on the basis of respective agreements to commercial customers or End Users.

Example: A Broadcaster provides an on-demand video to YouTube.

Asset Repositing

The SAM Repository can be populated with existing content assets of many different types allowing further Content Providers/Linkers to take advantage of existing repository content.

Asset Search

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component. This front-end element will allow users to search and discover SAM Assets in order to be linked. The Asset Search is linked to the Asset Loader Service in order to retrieve information about digital assets.

Asset Service

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. The subcomponent Access Service will provide the user credentials needed to retrieve and submit social content. It will interact with the Identity and Security Services to retrieve them.

Asynchronous

Asynchronous execution applies to events/processes are executed sequentially, but with the next process being started without waiting for the previous process to complete. This implies that processes may execute in parallel and that the results of a process is not necessarily available after it has been initially executed. This is opposed to synchronous execution.

Example: NodeJS is an inherently asynchronous software platform.

Audience

A group term for consumers of media services, i.e., users of digital online media services, listeners to radio programmes or viewers of TV programmes.

Example: The Audience for our TV programme and related online content mainly consists of young people.

Audience Analyst

A media professional charged with researching, recording and analysing the use of media products by Audiences, including their media consumption behaviour and attitudes (users, listerners, and viewers).

Example: An Audience Analyst conducts a survey in order to identify how many online users watch on-demand videos provided by a Broadcaster, on which Devices, at which time of day and with which motivation.

Authentication Services

This Subcomponent is part of the Cloud Storage component. The provided services are for the administration of the clients of the Cloud Storage, e.g. to register or remove a specific entity as a client of the Cloud Storage.

Authorisation Services

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component.The provided services are for the administration of clients’ rights to use services of the CSC for specific buckets.

Automatic Summarisation

In SAM, Automatic Summarisation techniques will be employed to manage in a more efficient way the vast amount of dynamic information available, as well as to provide, when required, summaries of the existing Assets. Based on textual contents previously gathered in different SAM scenarios (such as a page related to an Asset from Wikipedia, or a large description contained in the Metadata of an Asset), summarisation techniques will be applied on demand to provide a concise and coherent condensed version of the original information.

Example: A set of biographical texts from a character is condensed obtaining as a result a resumed text which involves the most representative sentences.

Average Revenue Per User

Also known as Average Revenue Per Unit (ARPU). The ARPU allows companies to analyse the revenues and growth per user/unit and therefore pinpoint which are high or low revenue generators.

B2B

Stands for Business to Business. B2B describes commerce transactions between businesses, such as between a manufacturer and a wholesaler, or between a wholesaler and a retailer. Contrasting terms are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-government (B2G). B2B branding is a term used in marketing.

B2C

Stands for Business to Consumer. B2C describes commerce transactions between businesses and End User. It is also called Retail.

B2G

Stands for Business-to-government. B2G is a derivative of B2B marketing and often referred to as a market definition of "public sector marketing" which encompasses marketing products and services to various government levels - including federal, state and local - through integrated marketing communications techniques such as strategic public relations, branding, marcom, advertising, and web-based communications.

Background IPR

Background IPR means all Intellectual Property Rights owned by or licensed to a Project Partner at the start of the Project.

BBFC

Stands for British Board of Film Classification. The BBFC is responsible for the national classification and censorship of films within the United Kingdom. It has a statutory requirement to classify videos, DVDs and, to a lesser extent, some video games.

BCP

Stands for Brand and Consumer Protection.

BCP Rules Editor

This User Interface is part of Brand and Consumer Protection component. This interface will be employed by Actors to create, edit, delete or enable the rules that will be used to filter and protect the SAM content and SAM End User.

BCP Rules Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Brand and Consumer Protection component. This manages rules automatically transcribed into a formal language (from the BCP Rules Editor), ensuring the persistence of the changed rules and insertions as well as providing functionalities to query them.

BI

Stands for Business Intelligence.

BI and SM

Represents the Business Intelligence and Social Mining Component in SAM. This Component mines, with privacy considerations, information ranging from the actions taken (e.g., "did go to Wikipedia content", "did make purchase") or further social media interactions (e.g., NLP/Sentiment Analysis of discussions) carried out by the Users of the Sam Platform.

Example: Content Providers obtain detailed User feedback and analytics related to the syndicated Content in the 2nd Screen. They also benefit from new forms of Content monetisation for all types of programming or Content provision through personalised advertising and eCommerce on the syndicated information. They can see what worked and what did not. Results for Content Providers: feedback information to tune their offering to their Audience's needs. Results for End Users: an upgraded user experience.

BI and Social Dashboard

In SAM it is an Interface that provides statistical information on User behaviour in a specific Social Network related to a Business User's content.

Example: A somewhat similar example to this User Interface is the group/celebrity management Interface provided by Social Networking services such as Facebook.

BMC

Stands for Bus Management Console.

Bootstrap Framework

Bootstrap easily and efficiently scales your websites and applications with a single code base, from phones to tablets to desktops with CSS media queries.

BOP

The Board of Partners (BOP) is the forum in which all partners are represented in SAM. Its purpose is to deal with organisational and contractual matters rather than project activities which are performed via the project manager assisted by the Executive Board. It is chaired by TIE. It is the purpose of the BOP to represent all partners interests at a management level and in extreme instances handle conflicts or appeals which cannot be handled by the Project Manager, Executive Committee, WP Leads and Task Leads.

Brand and Consumer Protection

A Component in SAM which manages a cluster of mechanisms and policies created in order to provide a protected environment for users and consumers of a system, as well as for companies that interact or provide content for this system. The Brand and Consumer Protection (BCP) component will apply content protection filters with the purpose of avoiding that unexpected content could affect both brands and End Users integrity.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: BCP Rules Manager and Content Filter.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: BCP Rules Editor.

Example: Protection from pirated content created that belongs to a company.

Brand Protection Mechanisms

In SAM, Brand Protection is consisted from all the policies and protection rules that are created to preserve integrity, copyright, design, patent, reputation or "promise of an experience" associated with a brand, which conveys to consumers certain assurances as to the quality of the product or service of a brand.

Example: For some brands IPR provides protection for important aspects such as name, logo, design, etc. Online Brand Protection is required to prevent someone exploiting another brand for their own gain. For example, brand saboteurs can hijack search engine marketing, infiltrate social media and impersonate trusted brands to steal web traffic and peddle fake and pirated goods. However, Brand Protection in relationship with Social Networks is mainly concerned with protection of reputation. A media company employs a number of Brand Protection measures, which safeguard its brand reputation, positive attitudes towards the brand, and customer trust in the brand. For instance, protection from product piracy and protection from fraud and counterfeiting.

Broadcaster

A media company which publishes primarily linear TV/video (live or on-demand) and/or Radio/audio services, but since many years also related and unrelated IP-based Multimedia Content products/services to be consumed on multiple end devices.

Example: A Broadcaster such as the BBC offers, for example, two core TV channels, 3 radio stations, a Web portal and diverse content services on third-party platforms (e.g. YouTube or Twitter).

Bucket

The SAM Cloud Storage component will store data in so called “buckets”. These small data storage units can be used to store data isolated from each other based on the origin.

Bucket Principle

The Cloud Storage will be based on a so called “bucket” principle. Data will be stored in “buckets”. These small data storage units can be used to store data isolated from each other based on the origin. This allows a good privacy management of the data, since it enforces that a client of the Cloud Storage has only access to data in a specific bucket.

Bus Management Console

This User Interface is part of Interconnection Bus component. The Logger information can be consulted by the SAM system administrators by using the Bus Management Console (BMC) or by other SAM components for accountancy reasons. In addition, the BMC allows the management of the processes, schedules, users, registered components services, etc.

Business Analyst

A Business User who carries out business data analyses and/or predictive modeling activities.

Example: An employee who analyses available data concerning web video usage by tracking viewing figures on Youtube.

Business Analytics

The study of data collected from transactions and internet usage that allows business to analyse statistics, behaviours and trends.

Business Intelligence (BI)

Also known as BI, it is a set of theories, methodologies, architectures, and technologies that transform raw data into meaningful and useful information for business purposes. This Subcomponent is part of Analytics component and it is focused on providing quantitative and qualitative information. It will provide the interfaces in order to define and generate reports based on Business Intelligence tools already existing. It will also define the mechanism to manage and analyse information existing in the Cloud Storage to show information in the reports for the Content Broker and Content Broadcaster.

This Subcomponent is composed of the following subcomponents: Data Mining, Data Warehouse, ETL, Report Manager.

Business Rules Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component. This subcomponent provides the methods to allow the definition of the specific business rules implementing the different business models to potentially monetise the published asset.

Business User

A professional User in a business environment will utilise the range of products and services available from SAM to improve the business by enhancing efficiencies, making cost-savings or maximising revenues.

Example: Examples include advertising agencies, broadcasters, software developers, content owner etc.

C2C

Stands for Customer to Customer(C2C). C2C describes interactions directly between customers. In internet commerce, means through which consumers interact with other consumers through online auctions.

Example: eBay is a consumer-to-consumer portal.

CA

Stands for Consortium Agreement. Document with legal/administrative arrangements of the project between partners.

CAGR

Stands for Compound Annual Growth Rate.

Car Infotainment

Also known as In-car Entertainment (ICE). It refers to Hardware device(s) installed within moving vehicles that can provide a means of audio and/or visual entertainment, information and/or navigation.

Catch-up TV

A system for watching TV programmes several hours or days/weeks after they have been broadcast either by a terrestrial broadcaster or Service Provider. Systems in the UK include BBC iPlayer, 4OD and Sky Anytime.

CEN

Stands for European Committee for Standardisation. CEN provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical documents in relation to various kinds of products, materials, services and processes. CEN supports standardisation activities in relation to a wide range of fields and sectors including: air and space, chemicals, construction, consumer products, defence and security, energy, the environment, food and feed, health and safety, healthcare, ICT, machinery, materials, pressure equipment, services, smart living, transport and packaging.

Certificate Manager

This Subcomponent is part of the Identity and Security Services component. This subcomponent is used to validate and use certificates and keys to be used with the service.

Characterisation Actor

A set of SAM components which use characterisation functionalities. It is composed of Content Gateways, Context Control and Analytics.

Characterisation Controller

This Subcomponent is part of the Social Mining component. This subcomponent will be coordinated by the Social Mining Controller receiving orders and input data to invoke the characterisation functionalities of the Semantic Services component.

Cypher Service

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component. This subcomponent encrypts and decrypts communication messages.

Cloud App

An app that functions within the environment of the Web but can also have characteristics that function on a single device.

Cloud Storage

A cloud-based storage Component where other Components can store data. It consists of one or more databases and therefore can handle different types of data and will store them using the best possible way.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: External Databases, Meta & Configuration Data, Storage Facade, Storage Management, Storage Nexus, Storage Services, Storage Wrapper.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: DB Management

This Component is composed of the following services: Authentication Services, Authorisation Services

Example: A Component want to store an Asset which consists of a MP4 file. The Cloud Storage will store the MP4 file in the binary storage instead of a relational database.

CMS

Stands for Content Management System. A CMS is a computer program that allows publishing, editing and modifying content as well as maintenance from a central Interface. Such systems of content management provide procedures to manage workflow in a collaborative environment.

Comment

A written post on a digital platform, often related to an observation, occurrence, statement or experience. It is usually a fact, information or opinion expressing a personal reaction or attitude associated with Social Networks, blogs or sites such as YouTube.

Example: The End User usually Comments by using the comment function provided by the web portal and such remarks may be positive or neutral or informative. For example, "just seen # Celebrity in Harrods." or "The best film ever...".

Communication Adapter

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of implementing a pluggable mechanism that allows implementing and publishing different Communication Adapters so that they can be used by the different source and destination components.

Communication and Federation

Instances of the SAM Platform can connect together through federation so that when looking for Content other repositories can be explored. It is based on an internal communication system for the exchange of data and Plugging of Services in a fast, secure and scalable way.

Example: Whereas the Content maybe be loaded/pointed-to on one repository, it will also be possible that on a case-by-case basis, and fully under the control of the party performing that operation, the Content could be notified-to/accessed-by other repositories and SAM Content Marketplaces in a federated structure. In particular, most SMEs do not have the resources to create these marketing channels themselves and content federation allows them a greater reach and thus more impact or revenue opportunity. Once found, others can use and link to the content which may result in the need for payment for such content. Result for Content Providers: Content is available to a wider provider Audience allowing increased recognition/sales. Results for End Users: more Content that can be linked provides a richer experience.

Communication Security

Protects from attacks the transmission of a message from a sender to a receiver.

Example: The Secure Socket Layer (SSL) cryptographic protocol, which applies encryption to Internet-mediated communication so that it cannot be read by intercepting parties.

Community

A group of Social Media Users who share similar interests, values, preferences or friends and communicate in a dedicated group (e.g., in Social Networks) that they may have created, that may already have existed or that may have been created dynamically by SAM.

Example: Several Social Media Users join a Facebook group related to a certain personality such as a pop group (e.g., "One Direction") or a reality TV show (e.g., "X-Factor").

Community Actuator

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. The Community Actuator interacts with the Social Network API of the Social Components. The role of the Community Actuator is to distribute social network communications within SAM dynamic communities to all members of the community to which it is addressed.

Community Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent maintains and stores communities and their members; it creates, modifies and stores data concerning to dynamic community membership.

Community Structure Analyser

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent is triggered by the Context Manager when active user context models have been updated. It then evaluates the updated data in order to determine whether a new dynamic contextual community should be created or existing ones should be modified, given the newly available data.

Complex Asset

An Asset that consists of Content from mutliple sources and is composed of more than one medium.

Example: A short form film with associated information on the actor being interviewed with links to a film trailer he stars in, along with his Twitter account details, Facebook page, and in screen shots from a film premiere.

Component

A component represents a modular part of a system, that encapsulates its content and whose manifestation is replaceable within its environment. A component defines its behavior in terms of provided and required interfaces.Larger pieces of a system's functionality may be assembled by reusing components as parts in an encompassing component or assembly of components, and wiring together their required and provided interfaces.

Example: The Dashboard will be a Component which will be part of the SAM Platform.

Component Policy

Defines a Policy framework, i.e. a set of rules, terms and regulations, for software Components modelling and development. Component policies describe the behaviour of Components in a system, relating to Component functionalities and application aspects.

Example: A Component Policy can define the order of priority as the annotated priority.

Compound Annual Growth Rate

Year-on-year growth rate over a specified time that follows a formula - (Ending Value / Beginning Value)^((1 / n) - 1), where n is the length of time of the investment in years - to provide an average.

Concept map

Diagram that depicts suggested relationships between concepts. It is a graphical tool to organize and structure knowledge employed in SAM to build the Reference Model.

Configuration/Device Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Generic Dashboard component. This component will be responsible for editing, saving and fetching the user preferences and will be accessible by the user through a specialised widget.

Connected Device

Similar to a Smart Device, it is an electronic gadget that can connect to other devices using Bluetooth, WiFi, 4G and other networks.

Consumed Asset

An Asset that is acquired/purchased and used by the End User. Consumed Assets may infer cost of replacement and/or sales revenues.

Example: A Consumed Asset may be a video that has been watched by an End User.

Consumer Protection

It includes all the protection mechanisms that are embedded in the SAM Platform in order to create a safe environments for the Users, and policies and legal rules to ensure the rights of them. A website employs a range of consumer data protection measures related to account holder's data, Privacy Settings and cookies. A consumer must be protected from being harmed by unexpected content deemed as offensive, profane, intolerant, hurtful, insightful, bigoted, homophobic or illegal.

Example: Parental controlling for blocking inappropriate content for children, such as adult content or images, or adult themed comments on social media.

Content

The elements contained within the Asset which in the media industry context is a group term for different types of media products and - if applicable - directly associated Metadata.

Example: The text within a Wikipedia page, the Metadata within a SAM Asset, the text within a database record, the footage of a programme or film, or the elements that make up the physical or digital entity (e.g., chapters in a book, tracklist of an album, JPEG images, etc.) or which in the case of Broadcaster may be a range of Content, from TV and radio programmes to videos, audios, images and online multimedia Services.

Content Characterisation

Once imported, characterisation (formalised description) takes place either manually or auto-manually (suggestions provided by SAM) where the content is described at both the meta level (e.g. video director) or scene level (e.g. specific vehicle at a point in the film) allowing better linking and syndication to take place.

Content Editor

A media content development/production professional (including Journalists) who develops/produces and - if applicable - editorially controls media content products as well as creates/changes Content or Metadata about an Asset.

Example: A Journalist/editor/author develops, authors, changes or produces or editorially controls a media content product such as an online article, a video, a TV programme, a web documentary, 2nd Screen offering or database records and Assets.

Content Data Listener

This Subcomponent is part of the Context Control component. This subcomponent receives metadata about content sent to the user via the Dashboard.

Content Extraction

Techniques and mechanisms for data extraction from third party systems, such as CMS, Web sites, Data Bases, etc. Sometimes companies experience a lack of efficiency in the exchange data mechanisms. Therefore, it is highly necessary to improve the performance of companies in the area of Content Extraction mechanisms.

Example: Extract content from a company in XML format and store this information in a particular structure in a Cloud Storage.

Content Federation

Instances of the SAM Platform can connect together through federation such that when looking for content, other repositories can be explored.

Content Gateways

The Content Gateway is the component in charge of data gathering with external data sources and 3rd party systems. The objective is to implement strategies, tools and techniques to allow an easy integration of heterogeneous Content sources into the SAM Platform.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Gateway Control, Mapping Repository, Web Data Extraction.

This Component is composed of the following User Interfaces: Mapping Repository UI, Semantic Integrator Editor.

Example: TSI (TIE Semantic Integrator) makes use of a semantic based format characterisation, mapping and transformating approaches to map to and from different data sources like XML, XSD, RDF, Flat Files (FF), CSV, and RDBMS. The aim of TSI is to provide intelligent and automatic mapping suggestions based on smart semantic algorithms, vocabularies and further transforming the data from one format to another. It uses the crowd sourced means of capturing the concepts to facilitate the mapping between two different schemas.

Content Filter

This Subcomponent is part of Brand and Consumer Protection component. This uses the required rules to filter on demand those Assets and related content indicated by the Marketplace and Syndicator.

Content Linking

Content providers, Information Brokers, or even SAM End Users can also link content together with other content or metadata content by using the SAM Linker tool for composition and aggregation provided they have permission to access the relevant contents.

Content Management Policy

A published principle on which basis a platform operates with regards to content management issues.

Example: The Content Management Policy of a platform stipulates that all Content stored in or distributed from the platform adheres to specific management rules (e.g., digital Asset management or rights management related).

Content Manager

A media professional responsible for the strategic management of a portfolio consisting of different types of Content product/Services published on different distribution platforms and who oversees the Content or Metadata of a group of Assets.

Example: The Content Manager (e.g. Head of Content) ensures that all content products and services across platforms are aligned and match the overall strategies of a media publisher.

Content Marketplace

After the content is characterised and imported, the digital asset becomes available in the Marketplace for use and linking. The term “Marketplace” does infer that some assets may be ’payable’ (probably on a pay-per-use model) but many, or possibly most assets, would be free.

Example: The SAM content marketplace is an online marketplace where content user and resellers can find different content assets that are published to the platform by asset providers.

Content Policy

A set of conditions, rules, and terms defining the regulation of Content. It is concerned with providing an infrastructure on high-level content-related issues rather than focusing on the substance of the Content itself.

Example: A Content Policy may provide regulations on infrastructures for accessibility to information, telecommunications, eCommerce and security.

Content Provider

An entity or person who supplies Assets, Content and/or Metadata about an Asset and which has the rights to content items/products (Assets) and to make them available to media platforms, Publishers or other interested parties.

Example: An example would be BDS supplying Metadata about entertainment products such as film, DVD, music, games, books, or LyricFind supplying legal authorised song lyrics, or MovieWiz providing trivia, factoids and quizzes about films or a Broadcaster making their own, self-produced on-demand videos available on a major web-portal, so acting as a Content Provider.

Content Publishing

Content publishing is the act of importing/uploading of content and/or metadata into the SAM platform, specifically the SAM Content Repository.

Example: A SAM Content Broadcaster is a media company which publishes primarily linear TV/video (live or ondemand) and/or Radio/audio services, but also related to IP-based Multimedia Content products/services providers to be consumed on different kinds of devices.

Content Risks

Content risks concerns the fundamentals of accuracy and appropriateness, as well as legal obligations, like defamation, etc.

Example: One of the critical point in SAM platform is the content. Obviously, in SAM, it is necessary to flow the content all the time through the platform and so, the content risks should be identified.

Content Syndication

The sale or controlled placement of the same Content on multiple partnering Internet destinations. In this online business model, the Content's destinations and placements are selected by the Content owner or its syndication agent so as to maximize the Content's exposure to desired Audiences. The Content owner monetizes the Content through sale, subscription and various revenue-sharing models.

Example: Usually Content Syndication techniques are used to keep control of the information provided through, e.g., the retailers' chain websites or Social Networks. In that way, marketing campaigns can be managed centrally, keeping brand and product information coherent and getting information about the user interaction, number of prints, etc.

Content User

A professional User or End User who is consuming Content Assets or Services provided by the SAM Platform on either the 1st Screen and 2nd Screen or to multiple Devices.

Example: A Journalist who uses content Metadata from a third party provider, or an End User who watches an on-demand video.

Context Analysis

The analysis of available data in order to identify contextual parameters.

Example: The analysis of mobile phone gyroscope motion in order to determine whether a person is running, walking or standing still with the aim of identifying whether a person should be notified of an incoming message.

Context Awareness

Awareness of the operating environment and situation of a Device and/or person with the aim of taking this awareness into consideration when taking actions.

Example: The Google Now service automatically selects and displays information to users based on their location and additional information such as content of emails received and search queries entered recently.

Context Changes

The identification of changes in relevant context parameters that may require action by a system.

Example: A context change in SAM Platform might be a User using a particular Widget in the SAM Dashboard, where the usage indicates a particular interest not directly related to the 1st Screen content.

Context Control

The purpose of the Context Control component in SAM is to create, maintain and make available a context model that describes the context in which the individual user interacts with the system (e.g. location, frequency of use of different widgets, data on content viewed by the user), and to provide functionalities for automatically creating and managing user communities using the context models that are maintained by the component.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Social Data Listener, Content Data Listener, User Data Listener, Context Manager, Context Data Analyser, Community Structure Analyser, Community Manager, Community Actuator.

Context-Based Dynamic Communities Creation

The dynamic generation of communities of system Users based on their usage context.

Example: For SAM, a dynamically generated Community could consist of persons who watch a TV show and who have "liked" a particular actor from that TV show in a Social Network.

Context Data Analyser

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent is called by the Context Manager to carry out more sophisticated analyses of data received via data listeners, for instance statistical analyses of the frequency of use of components.

Context Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent creates, maintains and updates a representation of context parameters of interest for each active end user.

Context Manager API

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. The Context Manager API provides functionalities that allow other components to selectively retrieve specific parts of one or more users’ context models.

COPY

Copy is a new cloud storage which can be used as a cloud storage solution, for cloud sync or as a way to share files (publicly and/or privately).

Core Social Tools

A Component in SAM that enables basic required functionalities for connecting to, reading from and posting to Social Networks.

Example: Similar examples to the Core Social Tools envisioned for SAM are User Interfaces that allow Users to interact with multiple Social Networks simultaneously and generalised software APIs for communicating with Social Networks such as OneAll.

Crowdsourcing

Crowdsourcing is the process of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people, and especially from an online community, rather than from traditional employees or suppliers.

Example: The Missing Maps Project wants to crowdsource digital maps of the entire globe.

CRUD

Stands for Create, Read, Update and Delete. In computer programming, CRUD (sometimes called SCRUD with an "S" for "Search") are the four basic functions of persistent storage.

CS

See Content Syndication.

DACH

Stands for (D) Germany, (A) Austria and (CH) Switzerland.

Dashboard

The Dashboard is the component on the 1st or 2nd Screen that connects the SAM platform with the End User and provides a Graphical User Interface for the user interaction.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: 1st Screen, 2nd Screen.

See Multi-device Dashboard.

Dashboard Control

This Subcomponent is part of Generic Dashboard component.The Dashboard Control’s main function is to foresee a way for widgets to communicate with each other across the Generic Dashboards in use.

Dashboard Viewer

This Subcomponent is part of 1st Screen and 2nd Screen components.The Dashboard Viewer subcomponent will embed and envelope.The Dashboard Viewer subcomponent will contain a Generic Dashboard component, which displays different widgets based on the content (media) the user is consuming at the moment.

Data Characterisation

A data format or system that is used to describe, classify and provide means for accessing data through annotations in order to handle and distribute this data more easily and efficiently.

Data Characterisation acts also as part of Semantic Services component. It provides services for semantic analysis such as lexical disambiguation using semantic information obtained through the Semantic Resources Explorer. As a result, incoming data will be enriched with ontology keywords such as Asset metadata, keywords, and ontology labels.

Example: Multimedia data descriptions provided using the MPEG-7 description standard and their processing with an MPEG-7 implementation.

Data Listener

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component.These subcomponents will subscribe and listen to available incoming data, and convert, aggregate and buffer data if needed

Data Listener Controller

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. The Data Listener Controller manages the individual Data Listeners and directs data to the context manager, if needed.

Data Mining

Sifting through very large amounts of data for useful information. Data Mining uses Artificial Intelligence techniques, Neural Networks, and advanced statistical tools (such as Cluster Analysis) to reveal trends, patterns, and relationships, which might otherwise have remained undetected. In contrast to an Expert System (which draws inferences from the given data on the basis of a given set of rules), Data Mining attempts to discover hidden rules underlying the data. Also called Data Surfing.

Example: Finding which customers are likely to terminate service or find which prospects are likely to become customers.

Data Mining Component

This Subcomponent is part of Analytics component.The objective of the Data Mining subcomponent is to use the information stored in the Data Warehouse component and transform it into an understandable structure to be used by the Report Manager

Data Services API

This subcomponent is part of the Syndicator component. It offers the means so that the different components and/or widgets can ask for information stored in SAM, taking into account the user context, the assets business constraints, etc.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Activity Logger, Syndication Controllers, Syndication Generator, Syndication Manager, Syndicator API.

Data Warehouse

This Subcomponent is part of the Business Intelligence component. The Data Warehouse will store in a specific database the information extracted in the ETL process.

Data Warehousing

A process in which data from multiple sources/databases is combined into one comprehensive and easily accessible database. Then this data is readily available to any business professionals, managers, etc. who need to use the data to create forecasts – and who basically use the data for data mining.

Example: An example of data warehousing that everyone can relate to is what Facebook does. Facebook basically gathers all of your data – your friends, your likes, who you stalk, etc – and then stores that data into one central repository. Even though Facebook most likely stores your friends, your likes, etc, in separate databases, they do want to take the most relevant and important information and put it into one central aggregated database. Why would they want to do this? For many reasons – they want to make sure that you see the most relevant ads that you are most likely to click on, they want to make sure that the friends that they suggest are the most relevant to you, etc. – keep in mind that this is the Data Mining phase, in which meaningful data and patterns are extracted from the aggregated data. But, underlying all these motives is the main motive: to make more money – after all, Facebook is a business.

DB Management

This User Interface is part of Cloud Storage component.This user interface enables Cloud Storage administrators to manipulate databases in an easy way.

DBMS

[DBMS] stands for Database Management System, which is a software applications containing databases and providing user interfaces to manipulate the databases and its data.

DBpedia

DBpedia is a crowd-sourced community effort to extract structured information from Wikipedia and make this information available on the Web.

DECE

Stands for Digital Entertainment Content EcoSystem. DECE is a consortium of major Hollywood studios, consumer electronics manufacturers and retailers, network hardware vendors, systems integrators and DRM vendors. The group now runs UltraViolet. DECE was originally called "Open Market". DECE member companies developed the policies, specifications, and license agreements.

Decision Making

The thought process of selecting a logical choice from the available options. When trying to make a good decision, a person must weight the positives and negatives of each option, and consider all the alternatives. For effective Decision Making, a person must be able to forecast the outcome of each option as well, and based on all these items, determine which option is the best for that particular situation.

Example: The possibility to discover trends and interesting information allowing media producers, Publishers or Broadcasters to take further decisions quickly and so, further facilitate their commercialisation and exploitation opportunities.

Description Logic

It is a family of formal knowledge representation languages. DL is used in artificial intelligence for formal reasoning on the concepts of an application domain (known as terminological knowledge). It is of particular importance in providing a logical formalism for ontologies and the Semantic Web.

Design-time

The time during which you build an application in the development environment by adding controls, setting control or form properties, and so on.

Example: A design-time error occurs during the writing of code.

Designer

A media professional responsible for designing on-air graphics or online media services such as websites and apps interfaces.

Example: A designer creates the look and feel of an online media service or channel, usually based on the corpororate design of the media company.

Development Methodologies

Development methodologies are the basis for defining the functions a business system must provide, and to facilitate requirements management. It captures the 'who', 'what' and 'why' of a requirement in a simple, concise way, often limited in detail by what can be hand-written on a small paper notecard.

Example: Agile is a growing software development methodology emphasizing adaptability.

Device

Any hardware that is used by SAM to represent the media, allow context-driven interaction with it or both. So, it is where the Dashboard is running on and presenting its content.

Example: Nexus 5 is a SAM-enabled smartphone Device.

Device Controller

This subcomponent is part 2nd Screen component. It will gather device specifications and provide the access to device specific features such as the GPS sensor, that can be used in order to improve the End User context.

Device Developer

A developer/manufacturer of a hardware media Device which can have built-in support for the SAM Platform as part of its feature-set.

Example: The Device Developer is responsible for increasing the battery lifetime.

Device Specifications

The specifications of a Device used by SAM Platform. Adapting of the Assets representation according to them enables the creation of an appropriate representation format for each Device. It contains the display resolution, existing sensors, data connection Interfaces, etc.

Example: The Nexus 5 model has, among other characteristics, a 5-inch display.

Dialogue

The process through which the End User communicates her intentions to the SAM Dashboard (1st Screen or 2nd Screen) and receives information and questions from it. Dialogue will be used to handle most parts of SAM's User Interface.

Example: The User says "Share my status" and the system asks with which people should it share it. The User replies that it should be shared by those marked as "family" and the system confirms that the sharing of the post is done.

Dialogue Move Engine

This Subcomponent is part of the Voice Dialogue component.The DME takes as input dialogue moves (eg. consult a resource, ask a question or make a feedback).

Digital Marketing

Marketing of products and/or services via digital channels. It includes channels that are not Internet based.

Digital Rights Management Policy

Published principle on which basis a platform operates with regard to controling the use of Content/Assets following digital distribution (DRM).

Example: The Digital Rights Management Policy of a platform stipulates that all content that is stored in or distributed from a platform is subject to DRM systems.

Direct to Consumer

A form of marketing a product or service direct from the seller to the consumer - thus taking out the retailer or middleman.

Discover

Search and Filtering techniques used in SAM to allow End Users accessing Content relevant to their needs, taking into account semantic content relationships and factors such as contextual properties and relationships between Content.

Example: A Content Provider can Discover Assets related to the Content she is currently editing in the SAM Platform.

Discovery Actor

The set of SAM components that use the Asset discovering functionalities. These components are Linker, Syndicator and Marketplace.

DL

Stands for Description Logic.

DME

Stands for Dialogue Move Engine.

DOW

Stands for Description of Work. A document that provides the foundation for the actual research and technological content of SAM.

DRM

Stands for Digital Rights Management. DRM is a class of technologies that are used by hardware manufacturers, publishers, copyright holders, and individuals with the intent to control the use of digital content and devices after sale. There are, however, many competing definitions.

DTS

Standos for Data Transformation Services. DTS is a set of objects and utilities to allow the automation of extract, transform and load operations to or from a database.

Dynamic Communities

Communities that are created, modified and removed automatically depending on their usage and contextual properties of the Community and of community members.

Example: For SAM, a dynamically generated Community could consist of persons who watch a TV show and who have "liked" a particular actor from that TV show in a Social Network (see Context-Based Dynamic Community Creation). This Community could be dynamically split if, for instance, part of the Community wants the character played by the actor to make decision A (e.g., attend a party), while the remainder of the Community wants the character to make decision B (e.g., not attend a party).

EAN

Stands for International Article Number. An EAN-13 barcode (originally European Article Number, but now renamed International Article Number even though the abbreviation EAN has been retained) is a 13 digit (12 data and 1 check) barcoding standard which is a superset of the original 12-digit UPC system developed in the United States.

EC

Stands for European Commission. The EC is the executive body of the European Union (EU) responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and day-to-day running of the EU.

eCommerce

Stands for Electronic Commerce. Commonly known as e-commerce or eCommerce, is a type of industry where the buying and selling of products or services is conducted over electronic systems such as the Internet and other computer networks.

Ecosystem

A complex network or interconnected system.

EDI

EDI stands for Electronic Data Interchange, which is a system that allows data interchange between different parties if they support an EDI standard.

EDM

Stands for European Data Model. The EDM is the formal specification of the classes and properties that could be used in Europeana.

EIDR

Stands for Entertainment Identifier Registry. The EIDR is a universal unique identifier system for movie and television assets.

Encryption/Decryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding messages or information in such a way that only authorized parties can read it. Decryption is the reverse process.

Example: After they pay, the user is allowed to download and run a file and/or application to clean up the infection or, in this case, decrypt the encrypted files to return them back to a working state.

End User

The Consumer who is using SAM Platform by interacting with his 1st Screen and 2nd companion screens.

Example: Alejandra is a high school pupil from Spain. During her last year at school she has a busy lifestyle and has given up on watching scheduled programmes. She now gets her videos on-demand to view them on her PC. But since her parents have a new Philips Ultra HD Smart-TV she also uses Smart-TV apps from broadcasters to watch videos. Whatever she does, her tablet or smartphone is usually by her side.

EPG

Stands for Electronic Programme Guide. EPG is the classic, newspaper-originated representation of "what's on": a 2-dimensional grid of content options, with TV channels listed down the left-hand side and times across the top.

ERP

Stands for Enterprise Resource Planning. ERP is business management software that a company uses to collect, store, manage and interpret core business activities. Business areas of ERP may include manufacturing, service delivery, marketing, sales, inventory management, shipping and payment. An ERP system may be a single system or may consist of an integrated suite of sub-systems.

ESB

Stands for Enterprise Service Bus. An ESB is a software architecture model used for designing and implementing the interaction and communication between mutually interacting software applications in SOA.

EST

Stands for Electronic Sell Through. EST is a licensed reproduction without limitation on the ordinary use and enjoyment of the resulting lawfully made copy. The "To Own" appendage is a misnomer, given that ownership of the medium onto which a file is downloaded does not change. Anyone who downloads a file under a valid license is the owner of a lawfully made copy, no matter what restrictions may be placed on access to the file.

ETL

This Subcomponent is part of Business Intelligence component. Once the reports have been created the next step is to generate the necessary information to show them. To reach this goal the BI component will Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) information into the system.

European ICT

Stands for European Information and Communication Technologies. ICT is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT), but is a more specific term that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage, and audio-visual systems, which enable users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information.

EV

Stands for Earned Value. An EV system in essence means the following: payments, or portions of payments, for money received and distributable shall be linked to all tasks, deliverables and milestones such that they are only released when these intentions are successfully completed and improved at the various levels.

Event Driven Architecture

Event-driven architecture (EDA) is a software architecture pattern promoting the production, detection, consumption of, and reaction to events.

Event-driven SOA

Event-driven SOA (SOA 2.0) is a form of service-oriented architecture (SOA), combining the intelligence and proactiveness of event-driven architecture with the organizational capabilities found in service offerings.

EWN

Stands for EuroWordNet. EWN is a system of semantic networks for European languages, based on WordNet. Each language develops its own WordNet but they are interconnected with interlingual links stored in the Interlingual Index (ILI).

Exploration Actor

A set of SAM Semantic Services subcomponents, which use semantic exploration functionalities. It is composed by Asset Discovery, Data Characterisation and Sentiment Analysis.

Explore

The process of browsing through the existing set of Assets available in the Marketplace in order to identify those of interest for the current Content Editor.

Example: When a Content Editor wants to compose specific information about an specific topic, it can explore and/or search through the assets in the SAM Marketplace in order to find the most appropriate ones and link and/or compose them through the Linker.

Experience Provider

An entity or individual that provides a usually pleasurable occurrence or experience, such as a musician, film studio, cinema, amusement park, or water-park. It is increasingly being applied to social online experiences as they provide the foundation for a more immersive, interactive, enriching and engaging content consumption experience through social channels. It could apply to an End User who provides Content to the SAM Platform by sharing Experiences on the used Content and Assets.

Example: A Broadcaster may act as an Experience Provider supplying End Users a set of related Content and interaction elements that can be consumed alongside a primary media item such as an on-demand video. "Experience" examples include online entertainment which may blend entertaining interactive functionality and Content including live video streaming, video chat communications, multi-player gaming, music and videos streaming, with Social Networking service such as social graph management, forums, reviews, ratings, and geo-location options.

Extensibility

In computing, extensibility is a system design principle of which future growth and change is a main consideration.

Example: It is easier to add new functionality to a system with a higher level of extensibility.

External Databases

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component.The user data will be stored in different databases selected on basis of the requirements for the data.

External Services

External services used by the SAM Platform to extract information to be used by different components.

Example: Most NLP tasks use external resources. Usually, these resources are dictionaries, thesaurus, ontologies, etc. Also interaction with external social networks and other external sources.

Filtering

A process which filters Content according to Content Protection Policies.

Example: Filter inappropriate language coming from Social Networks. For example blocking the tweets which contains inappropriate language to be shown in the SAM Dashboard.

Federated Infrastructure

Federated Architecture (FA) is a pattern which describes an approach to enterprise architecture that allows interoperability and information sharing between semi-autonomous de-centrally organized lines of business (LOBs), information technology systems and applications.

Example: SAM Platform could connect different federated Marketplaces in such a way that Asset Content in one Marketplaces could be discovered by another.

Federated Instance

Represents the connexion between the different components which form a Federated Infrastructure.

Example: A Federated Instance is a SAM Platform connected to other SAM Platforms to make its Content available to them.

Federated Instance Registry

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of registering the different SAM instances.

FoF

Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Factories of the Future (FoF) was launched under the European Economic Recovery Plan. PPP activities, funded under the EU’s 7th EU Framework Programme for Research (FP7 - 2007-2013), comprised 150 high level projects involving top industrial companies and research institutions in Europe. The FoF PPP initiative aims at helping EU manufacturing enterprises, in particular SMEs, to adapt to global competitive pressures by developing the necessary key enabling technologies across a broad range of sectors.

Format Converter

This Subcomponent is part of Multi-device Representation component. This subcomponent will be responsible for converting a non-device specific asset to a device specific format although towards the generic level (tablet, mobile vs Sony S2, iPad etc).

Format Transformation

A feature of the component Interconnection Bus which transforms incoming messages so they can be processed by the target Component.

FP7

Stands for Seventh Framework Programme. FP7 is the funding program created by the European Union in order to support and encourage research in the European Research Area.

Freemium

A service which is free but more advanced services need to be paid for.

FSIGN

Stands for Financial Statement Authorised Signatory. In order to make use of electronic-only transmission and signature of Forms C, each beneficiary has to appoint a "Financial Statement Authorised Signatory (FSIGN)" in the Participant Portal.

FTE

Stands for Full-Time Equivalent. FTE is a unit that indicates the workload of an employed person (or student) in a way that makes workloads comparable across various contexts.

Function

A Function is interpreted as a specific process, action or task that a system is able to perform.

Example: Manage Asset is a function available in the SAM Platform.

Functionality Policy

A set of conditions, rules and terms regulating Functions.

Example: Functional Policies may regulate the processing of Content.

GA

Stands for Grant Agreement. Legal document between the beneficiaries and the European Commission, regardless of the instrument or action involved.

Gateways Configuration Editor

A system which offers a great range of features to manage different types of Gateways.

Example: An editor to manage Content Gateways in SAM Platform.

Gateway Control

This Subcomponent is part of Content Gateways component.This subcomponent is in charge of orchestrating the different internal operations in the Content Gateway component.

Generation

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. This subcomponent takes a set of dialogue moves from the system and formulates them as a sequence of words in natural language.

Generic Dashboard

The Generic Dashboard will be an application that is comprised of configurable widgets and the mechanisms to manage them.These widgets (usually shown on the 2nd Screen) can be used to show relevant information related to the video seen in the Video Viewer user interface (usually in the 1st Screen) and elements for social feedback.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Configuration/Device Manager, Dashboard Control.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: Video Viewer, Widget Manager

Glossary

Alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms. This is a RTENOTITLE.

Graphical Editor

This Subcomponent is part of Multi-device Representation component. This subcomponent is responsible for creating the specific details of a format aimed at a certain device, which will allow for definition of device-specific templates.

GUI Interpretation

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. This sub-component produces semantic representations of input received from the Dashboard Viewer.

GUI Output Planner

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. Based on the command inferred from the user voice, the Output Planner informs the Dashboard Viewer so that the result is visible for the End User.

Hashtag

A hashtag is a word or an unspaced phrase prefixed with the number sign ("#"). It is a form of metadata tag. Words in messages on microblogging and social networking services such as Twitter, Facebook, Google+, VK or Instagram may be tagged by putting "#" before them, either as they appear in a sentence or appended to it. The term "hashtag" can also refer to the hash symbol itself when used within the context of reciting a hashtag.

HbbTV 2.0

Hybrid broadcast broadband TV (HbbTV) is a global initiative aimed at harmonizing the broadcast and broadband delivery of entertainment services to consumers through connected TVs, set-top boxes and multiscreen devices.

HD

Stands for High Definition. HD comes in three different formats, all in widescreen format (16:9), and provides the highest resolution and picture quality of all digital formats. It is often combined with digitally enhanced sound technology. Because of the high bandwidth requirements, this format is not yet used for television broadcasts, although Blu-ray high-definition DVD formats are capable of a 1080p picture.

HDCP

Stands for High-bandwidth Digital Copy Protection. HDCP is a specification developed by Intel Corporation to "protect" digital audio and video content as it travels across Digital Visual Interface (DVI) or High Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMI) connections. HDCP protects uncompressed digital content from being transmitted to a non-HDCP compliant device (such as a DVD recorder), as data transmissions are permitted only between HDCP compliant devices connected to each other.

Home Entertainment

Products or devices that produce entertainment for home use.

Example: Video, music, games and books.

HTML

Stands for Hyper Text Markup Language. HTML is a markup language used for structuring and presenting content for the World Wide Web and a core technology of the Internet. HTML5 is the fifth revision of the HTML standard.

HTTP

The HyperText Transport Protocol is one of the basic protocols used on the Internet.

ICT

Stands for Information and Communication Technologies. It includes communcation devices, encompassing radio, TV, PCs, tablets, and satellite systems.

IDE

Stands for Integrated Development Environment. It describes a software which supports the developer at his implementation tasks. Besides a text editor an IDE mostly provides compiling and debugging and helpful features, so the developer do not have to use additional products for the development process.

Example: For developing Android applications developer can use Android Studio or Eclipse.

Identity and Security Services

The Distributed Identity and Security Services in the SAM platform focus on the protection of the platform against unauthorised use, with particular focus on those that are concerned with the federation of SAM Platform instances.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Certificate Manager, Cypher Service, OpenID provider, Policy Administration Point, Policy Decision Point, Policy Retrieval Point, System Identity Manager, User Identity Manager, Validation Authority.

Identity Management

The management of entities including their authentication and administration of their access rights. Identities to be managed in SAM include those of Business Users, SAM Platform instances and of End Users.

Example: The Microsoft ActiveDirectory system manages user accounts and their access rights to the resources managed by the ActiveDirectory instance.

IETF

IETF stands for Internet Engineering Task Force. This organization develops voluntary Internet standards to "maintain and improve the usability and interoperability of the Internet".

iframe

HTML tag (<iframe>) that specifies an inline frame. An inline frame is used to embed another document within the current HTML document.

Illegal Content

Digital content that entails copyright violations, which has been obtained from a non-legal, non-authorised source or is potentially of a criminal nature.

Example: Digital content such as movies, TV shows, artwork, photographs used in breach of copyright (e.g., downloaded from an Illegal Content site) and criminal content related to sexual child abuse, extreme violence or racism.

Information Broker

A company which buys, licenses, manages and resells content metadata and other data/information services from various sources, or an entity or person that researches information for clients.

Example: A content metadata provider buys, aggregates and edits a set of metadata, which then they make available to media companies and web portals. Information Brokers include market research, patent searches who buy, compile, and sell information.

Information Leakage

Information leakage happens whenever a system that is designed to be closed to an eavesdropper reveals some information to unauthorized parties nonetheless.

Example: Information leakage occurs when designing an encrypted instant messaging network, a network engineer without the capacity to crack encryption codes could see when messages are transmitted, even if he could not read them.

Information Mining

The SAM Platform implements Data Mining techniques of aggregate information, ranging from user actions to social media interactions, taking privacy consideration into account.

Information State

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. The role of the Information State subcomponent is to keep an internal "score" table with all the variables and their values during a dialogue session.

Injection Flaws

Injection flaws occur when an application sends untrusted data to an interpreter.

Example: Injection flaws are very prevalent, particularly in legacy code. They are often found in SQL, LDAP, Xpath, NoSQL queries, OS commands, XML parsers, SMTP Headers, program arguments, etc. Injection flaws are easy to discover when examining code, but frequently hard to discover via testing. Scanners and fuzzers can help attackers find injection flaws.

Interconnection Bus

A Component which allows the communication between Components using its Services and other SAM Platforms based on REST and XMPP. To interconnect the different Components in SAM a communication system to transport information between them is needed. To allow this exchange of data between the different SAM modules the Interconnection Bus could be used. This bus offers the possibility to connect multiple Federated Instances of SAM. Therefore, each SAM Platform could share its own resources with the rest of SAMs in a homogeneous way.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Communication Adapter, Queue, Routing, Transformation, Logger, Workflow Processor, Federated Instance Registry.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: Workflow Editor, Bus Management Console (BMC)

Example: The TIE SmartBridge (TSB)

Inter-Device-Communication

This subcomponent Inter-Device-Communication will be responsible for the communication between the 1st Screen and 2nd Screen regarding the Generic Dashboard components, which will be contained by the Dashboard Viewer subcomponents in each screen.

Inter-Device Communication - 1st Screen

This Subcomponent is part of 1st Screen component.This subcomponent will allow communication between the 1st Screen and 2nd Screen, taking advantage of the new features and specifications related to Smart TVs.

Interface

Common boundary where direct contact between two different devices, entities, environments, systems, etc., occurs, and where information is exchanged. In the context of computers, three common interface types are: (1) Hardware interface, consisting of cables, connectors, and ports that link devices such as keyboards, mice, printers, storage drives, etc., to the computer; (2) Software interface, consisting of commands, codes, and messages (called APIs) that enable different programs to communicate with each other and the operating system; and (3) User interface, consisting of command line, menus, prompts, dialog boxes, icons, wizards, etc., that enable a user and a computer to communicate with each other.

Example: Each Component needs an Interface to be able to communicate with other SAM Components or external Components.

Interpretation Component

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. It receives a set of strings, possibly annotated with confidence scores, from the external ASR component (that extract text from a sound signal).

Intra-Widget Communication

The functionality that enables the various Widgets to communicate with each other. In SAM, this will be done in an open and device-agnostic way. It synchronises the different Assets presented at the different 2nd Screens the User could be using (computers, tablets, smartphones, smart TVs, etc.), based on the User interactions and data provided.

Example: A Widget that allows the User to post statuses on Facebook can use Intra-Widget Communication to ask a Widget responsible for media consumption if and what the User is watching right now.

IP

Stands for Internet Protocol. IP specifies the format of packets and the addressing scheme in Internet. Most networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual connection between a destination and a source. IP allows you to address a package and drop it in the system, but there's no direct link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other hand, establishes a connection between two hosts so that they can send messages back and forth for a period of time.

IPR

Stands for Intellectual Property Rights. IPR is a legal concept which refers to creations of the mind for which exclusive rights are recognized. Under intellectual property law, owners are granted certain exclusive rights to a variety of intangible Assets, such as musical, literary, and artistic works; discoveries and inventions; and words, phrases, symbols, and designs.

Example: Common types of IPR include copyright, trademarks, patents, industrial design rights, trade dress, and in some jurisdictions trade secrets.

IPTV

Stands for Internet Protocol TV. IPTV is a system where a digital television service is delivered using Internet Protocol over a network infrastructure, which may include delivery by a broadband connection. Content, instead of being delivered through traditional broadcast and cable formats, is received by the viewer through the technologies used for computer networks. IPTV is typically supplied by a Service Provider using a closed network infrastructure. This closed network approach is in competition with the delivery of TV content over the public Internet, called Internet Television.

ISAN

Stands for International Standard Audiovisual Number. ISAN is a voluntary numbering system for the identification of audio-visual works, providing a unique, internationally recognised, and permanent reference number for each audio-visual work registered in the ISAN system. The ISAN remains the same for an audio-visual work regardless of the format in which it is distributed.

ISBN

Stands for International Standard Book Number. ISBN is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code.

ISNI

Stands for International Standard Name Identifier. ISNI is a method for uniquely identifying the public identities of contributors to media content such as books, TV programmes, and newspaper articles. Such an identifier consists of 16 numerical digits divided into four blocks.

ISO

Stands for International Standard Organization. ISO is the world's largest developer of voluntary International Standards. International Standards give state of the art specifications for products, services and good practice, helping to make industry more efficient and effective. Developed through global consensus, they help to break down barriers to international trade.

ISRC

Stands for International Standard Recording Code. ISRC is an international standard code for uniquely identifying sound recordings and music video recordings.

ISWC

Stands for International Standard Musical Work Code. ISWC is a unique identifier for musical works, similar to ISBN.

IT

Information Technology (IT) is anything relating to computing and technology such as the software, hardware or even the people who work with the technologies.

iVOD

Stands for Internet Video on Demand. The rental of audio-visual content delivered via the Internet. See also VOD.

IVR Systems

Interactive Voice Responses (IVR) systems are used to automate routine enquiries to a switchboard, such as choosing a number for an option trail.

IWC

See Intra-Widget Communication.

JIRA

Plattform to manage tasks and assigments. JIRA is a proprietary issue tracking product, developed by Atlassian, used for bug tracking, issue tracking and project management.

Journalist

A media professional charged with identifying, gathering and analysing information and then producing on that basis a media output product for publication (e.g., an article, a radio programme, a TV programme, a shortform video, an image gallery, a 2nd Screen content offering, etc.).

Example: A Journalist researches information from diverse sources on a topic in order to write an online article on this topic, or produce any other form of media output.

JSON

Stands for JavaScript Object Notation. JSON is an open standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of attribute–value pairs. It is used primarily to transmit data between a server and web application, as an alternative to XML.

KPI

Stands for Key Performance Indicator. A KPI is a type of performance measurement. An organization may use KPIs to evaluate its success, or to evaluate the success of a particular activity in which it is engaged. Sometimes success is defined in terms of making progress toward strategic goals, but often success is simply the repeated, periodic achievement of some level of operational goal.

Example: Zero defects, 10/10 customer satisfaction, etc.

Local Information Cache

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. The subcomponent Local Information Cache will reduce the number of roundtrips to external services. Where access might be restricted to a certain number of calls in a certain timeframe, information from social networks services has to be cached.

LOD

Stands for Linked Open Data. LOD is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods.

LOPD

Stands for Ley Organica de Proteccion de Datos. Spanish personal data protection law.

Language

The language in which a Content item is created or published.

Example: The Broadcaster provides an on-demand video in English language.

Licence

The owner of a content Asset provides a (usage) Licence to other businesses, media services or End Users, which allows them to use the content Asset in the way as specificed in the Licence.

Example: A Broadcaster grants a Licence to a web portal, which allows them to distribute/offer a set of on-demand videos owned by the Broadcaster in a context and scope as specified in the Licence.

Linker

A mechanism which links all the SAM platform Components that handle, store or distribute digital Assets.The Linker allows Media Broadcasters and Information Brokers for composition and aggregation of assets. This component enables the aforementioned groups of people to link content together, with other content or metadata, provided they have the appropriate permission in the marketplace

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Asset Enablers, Asset Loader, Asset Module Configurator, Asset Preview, Asset Search, Linking Project Manager.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: Asset Editor

Example: Asset Aggregation and Composition is linked to Asset Classification to find correlation between digital Assets in order to create the aggregated content.

Linked Data

Linked Data is about using the Web to connect related data that wasn't previously linked, or using the Web to lower the barriers to linking data currently linked using other methods.

Example: Linked data offers a set of best practices for publishing, sharing and linking data and information on the web.

Linking Project Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Linker component.Linking Project Manager is a core element of the tool with the functionality of creating new Linking Projects, saving them to the Cloud Storage and loading them at future time for reediting.

Logger

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of registering the information of the messages flowing inside the Interconnection Bus. The Logger subcomponent stores the necessary information in the Cloud Storage.

LoC NAF

Stands for Library of Congress Name Authority File. Using LoC NAF you can browse and view authority headings for Subject, Name, Title and Name/Title combinations, and download authority records in MARC format for use in a local library system.

Manage Asset

Te action to provide the required functionality for the effective annotation, aggregation and composition of Assets.

Example: Providers can enrich their Content by aggregating Assets available in the Marketplace, configuring the way and aspect the End User will see while consuming them and/or compose new, Complex Assets to help them better achieve their business goals and objectives.

Mapping Repository

This Subcomponent is part of Content Gateways component. This subcomponent will store the transformation maps and their definitions in the Cloud Storage in order to be reused.

Mapping Repository UI

This Subcomponent is part of Content Gateways component. The Media Broadcasters and Information Brokers will be able to manage the transformation information through the Mapping Repository User Interface.

MAR

Stands for Monthly Activity Reports. In SAM, project-internal reporting is conducted through MARs and Quarterly Project Progress Reports (PPRs). Reporting to the EC includes the Quarterly Management Reports (QMRs), which have been requested by the Project Officer but are not official deliverables of the project.

Marketing Actions

The possibility to discover trends and interesting information allowing media producers, Publishers or Broadcasters to take further decisions quickly and so, further facilitate their commercialisation and exploitation opportunities.

Example: New company products are developed to include improved applications and systems, are set at different prices depending on how much capability the customer desires, and are sold in places where other company products are sold. In order to promote the device, the company featured its debut at tech events and is highly advertised on the Web and on TV.

Marketing Automation

Software platforms and technologies that allow companies to market their services and products on multiple online channels.

Marketplace

The Marketplace is the area where Information Brokers and Content Providers can publish and access existing assets. In this way, they can make them available to the End Users or to allow other Content Providers and/or Information Brokers to use/enrich/buy these assets and potentially monetise them.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Asset and Service Manager, Business Rules Manager, Payment Gateway, Payment Services, Publisher, Syndicator Listener.

This Component is composed of the following user interfaces: Marketplace UI.

Marketplace UI

This User Interface is part of Marketplace component. This user interface provides the necessary interface to search/enrich/buy assets and services that Actors may need.

Mashup

Describes the creation of new content using the combination of already existing content. Originally the term comes from the music sector where different music tracks where mixed. Mashups will be created by using open APIs of existing web content which could offer text, audio, video or other data. It is a web page, or web application, that uses content from more than one source to create a single new service displayed in a single graphical interface. Regarding SAM, Mashups will be used to enrich Widgets placed on the Dashboard.

Example: The TV shows a documentary about the history of Amsterdam. On the 2nd Screen Dashboard the user will discover more information regarding Amsterdam. The Google Maps Widget will show Amsterdam and other Points of Interest because the map and the data of the other Widgetshave been mashed up.

Massive Multiplayer Online Game

A videogame that has the capability to support large numbers of players interactively and simultaneously - therefore by default via the Internet.

Maturity and Stability

The definitions of maturity and stability as attributes of a software product are highly debated. In general the longer a product has been actively on the market, which usually correlates with less defects being discovered over time, the more mature and stable it can be considered.

MCR

Stands for Multilingual Central Repository (MRC). MCR is a repository where it is possible to align the several lexical dictionaries conceptualized by domain labels.

Media and Entertainment

M&E is an industry which includes traditional media sectors such as TV and Radio, Film, Music and Publishing of books, magazines, newspapers and information services. However new dimensions have been added to the world of M&E with the development and inclusion of computer gaming, fashion, fine and performing arts, advertising and marketing, whilst Interactive Media overlaps many sectors.

Media Interaction Component

The Component that facilitates the interaction between the various functionalities that support the Dashboard, also in advanced user interaction scenarios. Its main features are IWC, Media Synchronisation and Voice Recognition.

Example: The Dashboard, using the Media Interaction Component, can be instructed by the Voice Recognition results to acquire information about the remaining time of the film being reproduced. This request is passed to the Media Synchronization module and the reply is pass back to the Dashboard.

Media Synchronisation

The process through which the media being reproduced, as well as its content and timing attributes, become available for use by the SAM Widgets.

Example: SAM through Media Synchronization is aware that the User is watching the film "The Quantum Solace", at time 14:55 where (supposedly) an Aston Martin car can be seen.

Message Queuing

A feature of the Interconnection Bus to work off incoming messages in a steady way.

Message Routing

A feature of the Interconnection Bus to send incoming messages to the proper target Component in a proper way.

Meta & Configuration Data

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. This database contains the database configurations for the databases contained by subcomponent External Databases.

Metadata

Information about the Asset, either the technical details about the Asset or a description of what the Asset is and/or contributing facts, figures and trivia usually associated directly with a Content item (digital Asset).

Example: Technical details such as who created the Asset, when it was created, where it come from etc. Also text that informs such as title, unique identifier (e.g., EAN, ISRC, EIDR, ISNI, etc.), format (e.g., book, DVD, CD, digital file, Tweet, comment, blog, etc.), type (e.g., Film, Music, Book, etc.), runtime, castlist, tracklist, Artist, genre, and age range.

Metadata User

A media professional or company using Metadata in order to create new services/offerings.

Example: A Broadcaster is using content Metadata from a third party supplier in order to create a 2nd Screen experience.

Millennials

A person who has reached young adulthood around the time of the Millennium.

MMOG

Stands for Massive Multiplayer Online Game.

Mockup

A  mockup, or mock-up is a model of a design or an object. In software engineering it refers to a visualization of an [[Glossary#User Interface| UI] used for demonstration and evaluation purposes during the design phase.

Example: These mockups show the basic layout and functionality of the latest version of the web interface.

Mockup Story

A Mockup Story consists of a set of linked mockups. These linked mockups are building a navigable document, which provides an interactive way for the user to browse through an early design prototype of different User Interfaces.

Example: The following Mockup Story provides the User Interfaces of the SAM Dashboard: Dashboard Mock-up Story.

Monetise

To derive revenue from an action, product or service.

MoSCoW Method

The MoSCoW method is a technique used in management, business analysis, and software development to reach a common understanding with stakeholders on the importance they place on the delivery of each requirement - also known as MoSCoW prioritization or MoSCoW analysis.

According to A Guide to the Business Analysis Body of Knowledge, version 2.0, section 6.1.5.2, the MoSCoW categories are as follows:

  • M - MUST: Describes a requirement that must be satisfied in the final solution for the solution to be considered a success.
  • S - SHOULD: Represents a high-priority item that should be included in the solution if it is possible. This is often a critical requirement but one which can be satisfied in other ways if strictly necessary.
  • C - COULD: Describes a requirement which is considered desirable but not necessary. This will be included if time and resources permit.
  • W - WON'T: Represents a requirement that stakeholders have agreed will not be implemented in a given release, but may be considered for the future.

MPAA

Stands for Motion Picture Association of America. MPAA, together with the Motion Picture Association (MPA) and MPAA's other subsidiaries and affiliates, serves as the voice and advocate of the American motion picture, home video and television industries in the United States and around the world.

Multi-device Content and Media Representation Editor

The Component which creates a Representation Layer of the various Assets based on a configuration specific for the Device that uses the Component.

Example: Due to the fact that the Device in use is a Nexus 5, SAM Platform uses the pre-generated configuration files to determine, among others, the view mode and the possibility for a voice-enabled input.

Multi-device Dashboard

This Dashboard is responsible for the visual representation of Contents on different Devices in a proper way. It has to consider the heterogeneity of the Devices regarding software and hardware aspects. So, it is the abstract layer that underlies every instance of a specific screen Dashboard. It directs the synchronization of the contextual data and enables (remote) handling of media and configuration of SAM Platform by the User.

Example: Given that, while the User watches TV, she also uses a SAM-enabled smartphone, SAM's Multi-device Dashboard will coordinate the synchronization between the 1st Screen (TV) Dashboard and the 2nd Screen (smartphone) one. For example, the User can pause/resume media on the 1st Screen by acting on the 2nd Screen; the Multi-device Dashboard progagates the action to the 1st Screen.

Multi-device Representation

This Subcomponent is part of Syndicator component. Multi-device Representation enables flexible presentation of Assets on multiple devices with different formats and resolutions. It allows the seamless distribution of content to the user and enables stakeholders to take advantage of each device's unique characteristics.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Format Converter and Graphical Editor.

Multimedia Content

A group term for diverse digital media Content types: video, audio, images, text (posts), casual games, etc. usually indicating an Asset that consists of Content from more than one medium.

Example: A film will contain moving images, a soundtrack and possibly subtitles, therefore it uses several different media, whereas a Broadcaster may present text, audio, video, animation, interactive features, and still images in various ways and combinations made possible through the use of technology.

MV* patterns

Group of architectual patterns for implementing application with user interface. It divides a given software into multiple interconnected parts to separate internal representations of information from the ways that information is presented to the End User. Commonly used patterns include:

  • Model - View - Controller (MVC) - with three distinguised parts: Model abstracting application logic and data, View being presentation layer to the user, and Controller accepting user input and sending commands other two parts
  • Model - Store - View - Controller (MSVC) - with additional Store containing collection of Models
  • Model - View - Presenter (MVP) - where the Controller element is substituted for Presenter more aimed at formatting the Model to be displayed in the View
  • Model - View - ViewModel (MVVM) - with additional elements such as Binder which takes care of synchronizing the ViewModel and View, and ViewModel as converter of the Model to the Binder

NACO

Stands for Name Authority Cooperative Program. NACO allows participants to contribute authority records for personal, corporate, and jurisdictional names, uniform titles, and series headings to the LC/NACO Authority File. Membership in NACO is open to individual institutions willing to support their staff through a process of training, review, and direct contributions of records to the LC/NACO Name Authority File.

Name Authority

The use of authorised and unique identifiers for names, which therefore provide consistency and accuracy.

NLP

Stands for Natural Language processing. NLP is a field of computer science, artificial intelligence, and linguistics concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages.

Non-Infecting

See Viral License.

NoSQL

A NoSQL database provides a mechanism for storage and retrieval of data that is modeled in means other than the tabular relations used in relational databases.

OAuth

OAuth is an open standard for authorisation. It is used in a number of environments, in particular ones that require end user authorisation (e.g. smart device apps).

Object-Oriented Paradigm

This paradigm is a popular and prominent software development paradigm in which objects are considered as the basic building blocks used in the creation of software system.

Observer Pattern

The observer pattern is a software design pattern in which an object, called the subject, maintains a list of its dependents, called observers, and notifies them automatically of any state changes, usually by calling one of their methods.

Example: The observer design pattern enables a subscriber to register with and receive notifications from a provider.

Ontology

Formally represents knowledge as a set of concepts within a domain, using a shared vocabulary to denote the types, properties and interrelationships of those concepts. Those are structural frameworks for organizing information and are used in artificial intelligence, the Semantic Web, systems engineering, software engineering, biomedical informatics, library science, enterprise bookmarking, and information architecture as a form of knowledge representation about the world or some part of it. The creation of domain ontologies is also fundamental to the definition and use of an enterprise architecture framework.

Example: Many ontologies has been developed for different domains such as Linguistic, Medicine, Tourism and so on. For example, BabelNet is a multilingual lexicalized semantic network and Ontology. It was automatically created by linking the largest multilingual Web encyclopedia (Wikipedia) to the most popular computational lexicon of the English language (WordNet). The result is an "encyclopedic dictionary" that provides concepts and named entities lexicalized in many languages and connected with large amounts of Semantic Relations.

Ontology Manager

An editor that is used to maintain an Ontology.

Example: The Protégé Ontology Editor provides features for editing and managing ontologies.

OpenSocial

The OpenSocial data format is an environment for social application development. It is being maintained by the W3C.

Operating System

Essential software that manages hardware and other software resources on the device to allow the device to function.

Example: Windows, Mac OS X, Android and Linux.

Opinion Leader

An invididual that is instrumental in shaping opinions of societal groups, often in a specific topic area.

Example: The owner of this Twitter account is an Opinion Leader in the topic X and influences 1000s of followers with her views.

OPDM

Stands for Ontology-based Product Data Management (OPDM). OPDM aims at developing the necessary technology that is capable of providing the partners within a supply chain (e.g., manufacturers, content providers, online shops, mail order companies, consumers, etc.) with the right means to overcome some of the most prevalent challenges in eCommerce: efficient product data management, efficient data processing workflows and the provision of structured, useful and complete product information.

OTT

Stands for Over-the-Top. The broadband delivery of video and audio without the Internet Service Provider (ISP) being involved in the control or distribution of the content itself. The provider may be aware of but is not responsible for, nor able to control, the viewing abilities, copyrights, and/or other redistribution of the content, which is the nature of the Internet.

OpenID provider

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component. This external service provides access to a server implementation of a standardised authentication and identity management system; it is envisioned that the OpenID system will be used in SAM.

OSGI

The Open Services Gateway Initiative (OSGI) specifies a container format for deployment and integration of Java-based software components.

OWL

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of specifications to define machine-processable ontologies that can be used on the World Wide Web.

P2P

Stands for Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Networking. Unlike a network where all network clients make requests to one central server, a P2P network model makes the download requests to other clients. Once a user logs into a P2P network, the user is immediately both a client and a server simultaneously (though some systems permit "freeloading", where the server function is disabled). Users can download files from other users, and other users can download files from them. An example is BitTorrent, where a single download may come from multiple servers, each server delivering portions of the file which are assembled as a single file on the user's device.

Pay TV

Access to broadcast TV that is subscription based.

Payment Gateway

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component. This subcomponent is in charge of supporting the different payment methods (credit card or bank transfer) and managing the communication with the different Payment Services, for instance, PayPal or iDeal.

Payment Services

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component. This external service represents the different payment services that SAM Platform will support. For instance, PayPal, iDeal, WorldPay, Payxpert, etc.

Platform

A computing platform is the environment that a piece of software runs within.

Plugging

In order to implement a SOA approach, the Components should allow the exchange of data and "plug" of Services in a fast, secure and scalable way. Plugging is a feature of Services for connecting a Service into a framework without shutting the whole system down.

Example: An actively used platform should be enhanced by a new Service which enables a new Widget. Instead of shutting down the whole platform the service is plugged in on the fly without any downtime and the user can use the additional Widget.

PMML

Stands for Predictive Model Markup Language. PMML is an XML-based file format developed to provide a way for applications to describe and exchange models produced by Data Mining and machine learning algorithms.

PO

In EU funded projects it stands for Project Officer. It is the main contact between the research project and the European Commission.

Policy

A published principle on which basis certain measures are implemented and monitored, guiding work and decisions.

Example: My company has a working parents Policy, which publishes principles related to family friendly working practices and rules.

Policy Administration Point

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component.This subcomponent evaluates submitted requests – any method call that is considered to require protection, intercepted in the respective component and forwarded to the Policy Decision Point – against a set of authorisation policies.

POS-Tagging

It is the process of marking up a word in a text (corpus) as corresponding to a particular part of speech, based on both its definition, as well as its context i.e. relationship with adjacent and related words in a phrase, sentence, or paragraph.

Example: For English: noun, verb, article, adjective, preposition, pronoun, adverb, conjunction, and interjection. .

PPC

Stands for Pay Per Click. PPC (also called "cost per click") is an Internet advertising model used to direct traffic to websites, in which advertisers pay the publisher (typically a website owner) when the ad is clicked. It is defined simply as "the amount spent to get an advertisement clicked".

PPR

Stands for Project Progress Reports. The PPRs provide information to the EC about the project status from different points of view, including resources and financials. It is usually composed by the following sections:

  • Publishable Summary
  • Project Objectives for this Period
  • Work Progress and Achievements during the Period
  • Project Management
  • Deliverables and Milestones Tables
  • Explanation of the use of the resources
  • Financial Statements
  • Certificates, Only applicable if an audit has taken place

Privacy Settings

Functional options for end users of social media services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook, and YouTube) and other applications, which allow them to determine which account data and self-published content they wish to make available to which group of end users (e.g., the public, own contacts, specific groups of users, etc.).

Example: An end user decides to change the default Privacy Setting in Facebook in order to ensure that only selected fields in his user account profile are publically visible and that content on his time line is only visible to his Facebook friends.

Privacy and Confidentiality Policy

Published principles (e.g., as terms and conditions) on which basis a platform operates with regard to privacy and confidentiality issues.

Example: A social media platform provides information to its account holders and other users, in the form of its terms and conditions, which explains the platform's/company's measures related to user facing privacy and confidentiality issues.

Private Group

A group to which access is restricted, usually controlled by one or more group administrators or owners. In SAM, a Private Group is a User group in a Social Network that is not publicly accessible and which is restricted in terms of who is permitted to join the group.

Example: Google+ allows users to create Private Groups that are managed by them.

Production of Content

Within the SAM context, production of content covers all activities prior to publication of content and the subsequent analysis after its usage.

Production Scenario

Production of content, which covers all activities prior to publication of content and also after the usage of content

Project HandBook

Also known as Project Management, Quality Assurance and Reporting. It is a manual for all project procedures and communications. This document provides the foundation for the practical work in SAM throughout the projects duration and will help to make sure that the partners will follow well-defined procedures and practices.

Protection Actors

The set of SAM components which use the content filtering functionalities, such as the Marketplace and the Syndicator

Protection Manager

Actors whose access to the BCP Rules Editor interfaces in order to set rules used to filter Assets and Content. These actors are the Content Provider and Platform Administrator.

Prosumers

Content Providers and consumers in parallel. Prosumer is a portmanteau originally formed by contracting "producer" with the word "consumer". In a commercial environment, it describes a market segment between professional and consumer.

Example: A Prosumer grade digital camera is a "cross" between consumer grade and professional grade.

Prosumption of Content

Within the SAM context, prosumption of content covers all usage activities upon and after the publication of content, including 2nd Screen consumption and content discovery in the user context.

Prosumption Scenario

Within the SAM context, Prosumption Scenario covers all usage activities upon and after the publication of content, including the integration of user-generated content.

Prototyping

Prototyping is a process where prototypes of a software are created at an early stage in the project. These prototypes usually only contain a part of the features planned. The prototypes will contain more features after each iteration so at the end of the project a software version with all planned features is available.

Publisher

A media company or Asset owner which makes Content products available physically or digitally - and is legally responsible for these products/services - through specific distribution channels or platforms (e.g., Internet, TV-Networks, Radio-Networks, or physical carriers such as CDs or Books).

Example: A Publisher aggregates on-demand videos from different sources and authors into a media service which is branded/packaged and then published on one or more distribution channels. The Publisher has the overall legal responsibility for this offering regardless of which author/contributor was involved in producing parts of the offering.

Publisher Component

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component. Once the assets and services have been edited/adapted/received from the Asset and Service Manager, the publisher will publish them in the marketplace making them potentially available and retrievable by the SAM components (with the right authorisations or credentials) and the different federated instances

Push-to-Talk

Push-to-talk (PTT), also known as Press-to-Transmit, is a method of having conversations or talking on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode.

QA

See Question Answering.

QMR

In EU funded projects it stands for Quarterly Management Reports. The QMRs are compiled in order to give the Project Officer, Financial Officer, Legal Officer, and the Independent Experts a periodical overview of the project's progress.

Quality Assurance Team

The Quality Assurance Team (QAT) consists of the SAM user partners and will check if the SAM platform is acceptable based on the use cases in work package 8 ("Use Cases: SAM in Action") of the SAM project. It will not reveal code issues but provides helpful information about the usage quality of the SAM platform.

Question Answering

A discipline within the fields of Information Retrieval (IR) and Natural Language Processing concerned with building systems that automatically answer questions posed in natural language. The main difference between IR and QA systems is that QA systems try to obtain exact answers to questions, whereas IR systems return a list of documents that may contain the answer somewhere in. Given a question such as "Who was the first president of the United States?", a QA system would provide "George Washington" as an output.

Example: Watson was a QA system specifically developed to answer questions on the quiz show Jeopardy!

Queue

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of controlling the different information queues, where the messages are temporally stored.

Rating

The evaluation or assessment of something, in terms of quality (e.g., a descriptive evaluation), quantity (e.g., a statistical evaluation), or a combination thereof. A content Rating rates the suitability of TV broadcasts, movies, comic books, or computer games to its Audience.

Example: The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rating system is one of various motion picture rating systems used to help parents decide what films are appropriate for their children.

RDF

Stands for Resource Description Framework. RDF is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model. It has come to be used as a general method for conceptual description or modeling of information that is implemented in web resources, using a variety of syntax notations and data serialization formats.

Real-Time Bidding

The means by which page impressions on websites are bought and sold via instaneous programmes.

Recommendation

Guidance and/or suggestions provided to a User of a digital Service in terms of how to act/decide, or a Social Media User's action related to sharing/recommending a Content item that may prove to be enjoyable for a group or individual, and which is intended to save time by presenting pre-filtered information based on experience.

Example: Usually a suggestion to an End User on a digital media platform for a film, book, music, game, hotel, restaurant, etc. from a creditable source or Social Network implicitly or explicitly recommended to make it easier to select and/or view Content, items or Services.

Reference Model

Abstract framework or domain-specific Ontology consisting of an interlinked set of clearly defined concepts produced by an expert or body of experts in order to encourage clear communication.

Report

A document containing information organized in a narrative, graphic, or tabular form, prepared on ad hoc, periodic, recurring, regular, or as required basis. Reports may refer to specific periods, events, occurrences, or subjects, and may be communicated or presented in oral or written form.

Example: A Report to provide an analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective profitability, liquidity and financial stability of a company department.

Representation Layer

This layer contains the visualisation of the Assets as defined by the Visualisation Adapter which is also adapted to the Device Specifications. It is a vital Component of the Multi-device UI.

Example: The Representation Layer, in a circumstance such as in the Nexus 5 example above, will include attributes such as: one-column view, HTML5 enabled, voice-input enabled, etc.

Representation Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Business Intelligence component. This component provides tools to help the user to create the necessary requests from information (query) and to visualise different kind of reports.

Requirements

In product development and process optimization, a requirement is a singular documented physical and functional need that a particular design, product or process must be able to perform. It is most commonly used in a formal sense in systems engineering, software engineering, or enterprise engineering. It is a statement that identifies a necessary attribute, capability, characteristic, or quality of a system for it to have value and utility to a customer, organization, internal user, or other stakeholder. A specification (often abbreviated as spec) may refer to an explicit set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, design, product, or service.

Responsive Web Design (RWD)

Approach in web-design providing optimal viewing experience (reading, resizing, panning, scrolling etc.) to the End User independent from the display size. Website layout is adapted to the required size by using fluid, proportion-based grids, flexible images, and CSS3 media queries.

REST

Stands for Representational State Transfer. REST is an architectural style consisting of a coordinated set of architectural constraints applied to components, connectors, and data elements, within a distributed hypermedia system.

Return of Investment

A measure of the benefit(s) to an investor based on the amount invested.

ROI

Stands for Return of Investment.

Routing

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of processing them and instantiate the correct workflow, once the messages are received from the Queue.

RPC

Short for Remote Procedure Call, RPC refers to system functionalities that allow remote invocation of methods.

RTB

Stands for Real-Time Bidding.

RTD

Stands for Research, Technology, Development. This acronym is used with other concepts like: RTD concenpt, RTD WorkPackage, etc..

RuleML

Stands for Rule Markup Language. RuleML is a markup language developed to express both forward (bottom-up) and backward (top-down) rules in XML for deduction, rewriting, and further inferential and transformational tasks.

SaaS

Stands for Software as a Service. SaaS, sometimes referred to as "on-demand software", supplied by Independent Service Vendors (ISV) or Application Service Providers (ASP), is a software delivery model in which software and associated data are centrally hosted on the cloud.

SAM

Socialising Around Media. This Project.

SAM Asset

The Content held in, or linked to the SAM Platform which may be extended with additional Content.

Example: A film record may be improved and increased in commercial value by the addition of recommendations, reviews, ratings or comments.

SAM Asset Provider

SAM Content Broadcaster is a SAM Actor. Actor role that includes SAM Information Broker, SAM Content Broadcaster and SAM Asset Provider

SAM CL (Communication Layer)

The SAM CL is a web interface, in which configurations for each RESTful interface of a SAM component can be created, so other SAM components can access these interfaces using the Interconnection Bus component.

SAM Content Broadcaster

SAM Content Broadcaster is a SAM Actor. A media company which publishes primarily linear TV/video (live or on-demand) and/or Radio/audio services, but also related to IP-based Multimedia Content products/services providers to be consumed on different kinds of devices.

SAM Content Provider

SAM Content Provider is a SAM Actor. Actor role that includes SAM Information Broker, SAM Content Broadcaster and SAM Asset Provider

SAM Information Broker

SAM Information Broker is a SAM Actor. A company that buys, licenses, manages and resells content metadata and other data/information services from various sources, or an entity or person that researches information for clients.

SAM Platform

The SAM Project aims at developing an advanced federated Social Media delivery platform (the SAM Platform), providing open and standardised way of defining, characterising, discovering, syndicating and socially consuming media Assets interactively. Users will be able to consume and prosume these digital Assets through context-centric social interaction based on the use of media and companion screens.

Example: An example of a future SAM Platform deployment can be at BDS. The SAM platform will be able to distribute BDS contents and set up new business models based on BDS assets (though the SAM marketplace), distributing these contents, allowing them to be discovered by other SAM instances, improving the experience of the End Users consuming BDS data, and finally providing feedback to BDS about assets consumption, recommendations and End Users comments.

SAM Platform Administrator

SAM Platform Administrator is a SAM Actor. The person in charge of administrating the administration area in SAM

SC

Stands for Semantic Classes. A semantic class contains words that share a semantic property. Semantic classes may intersect (e.g., the intersection of female and young can be girl).

Example: Within nouns there are two sub classes, concrete nouns and abstract nouns. The concrete nouns include people, plants, animals, materials and objects while the abstract nouns refer to concepts such as qualities, actions, and processes. According the nature of the noun, they are categorized into different semantic classes.

Screen-Scraping

Normally associated with the programmatic collection of visual data from a source, instead of parsing data as in Web-Scraping. Originally, Screen-Scraping referred to the practice of reading text data from a computer display terminal's screen. This was generally done by reading the terminal's memory through its auxiliary port, or by connecting the terminal output port of one computer system to an input port on another. The term Screen-Scraping is also commonly used to refer to the bidirectional exchange of data. This could be the simple cases where the controlling program navigates through the user interface, or more complex scenarios where the controlling program is entering data into an interface meant to be used by a human.

Example: Consider a hypothetical legacy system dating from the 1960s — the dawn of computerized data processing. The Screen-Scraper might connect to the legacy system via Telnet, emulate the keystrokes needed to navigate the old user interface, process the resulting display output, extract the desired data, and pass it on to the modern system.

SCRUM

An iterative and incremental Agile software development framework for managing software projects and product or application development. It defines "a flexible, holistic product development strategy where a development team works as a unit to reach a common goal".

SD

Stands for Standard Definition. It is the basic level of quality display and resolution for both analogue and digital, of which the picture is 480 x 640 pixels, with interlaced scanning.

SDK

A Software Development Kit (SDK) is a set of tools to allow the creation of applications for a particular software package, framework, hardware platform, console, operating system or other development areas/platforms.

Search

The process of searching a digital Asset, either from SAM Platform for presenting them or by a User to find an Asset.

Example: When a Content Editor wants to compose specific information about an specific topic, it can search and/or explore through the assets in the SAM Marketplace in order to find the most appropriate ones and link and/or compose them through the Linker.

Search Aggregation

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components. The subcomponent Search Aggregation is used to retrieve content regarding a specific hashtag or a topic. The content will be provided by different Social Networks via the Social Network Communication and Social Network API.

Security Configuration Editor

A tool for handling security settings. It allows the (professional or other) User to create, apply and edit the security settings for the system, application or domain.

Example: The Security Configuration Editor enables the media professional to apply Brand Protection and Consumer Protection measures for each distribution situation or context.

Security Policy

Published principles on which basis a platform operates in terms of IT and data security, as well as related to media Asset it contains from companies involved in the platform.

Example: A web-based platform publishes a Security Policy, which defines measures that prevent hackers from entering the platform, account holders' and Content Providers' data or Assets.

Semantic Analysis

Semantic Analysis is the study of meaning, i.e., the task of figuring out the meaning of linguistic input and processing language to produce common-sense knowledge about the world. This process relates syntactic structures at the level of phrases, clauses, sentences and paragraphs to the level of the writing as a whole. In NLP, Semantic Analysis is employed in different applications such as Automatic Summarisation, Text Classification, and Machine Translation.

Example: In SAM, Semantic Analysis can be used to identify the meaning of Content and provide semantic information to Components such as the Linker.

Semantic Analysis Actor

A set of SAM components which use sentiment analysis functionalities, such as Context Control and Analytics

Semantic Description

It consists of a phrase or word set which denotes a description for a word/term/concept related to a specific meaning in a specific context.

Example: For the word "project", one of their menings is defined in WordNet by using the following Semantic Description: "any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted".

Semantic Inference

The logical inference of additional information based on the information available and a suitable world model.

Example: The process of reasoning using predicate logic to infer for instance that "if every entity of type A belongs to group B, and given that entity A1 is of type A, then entity A1 must belong to group B".

Semantic Integrator Editor

This User Interface is part of Content Gateways component. The Semantic Integrator Editor is a user interface used by the Media Broadcasters and Information Brokers in order to define the mapping between the data source structures and the data destination structures.

Semantic Relation

Relationships related to the meaning of a word/term/concept in a given context. It establishes a link between two or more semantic elements (terms of an Ontology or Semantic Network) which are directionals and are identified by a terms which describe their meaning.

Example: Semantic terms "Worker", "Student", and "Person"; Semantic relation "is_a"; Semantic networks "Worker is_a Person", "Student is_a Person".

Semantic Resources

This Subcomponent is part of Semantic Services component. It represents semantic information from connected external sources such as Linked Data repositories.

Semantic Resources Explorer

This Subcomponent is part of Semantic Services component. This subcomponent allows the user to explore internal (e.g. Assets storage in the Cloud Storage component) and external semantic networks (e.g. DBpedia as part of the external Semantic Resources) to use semantic resources.

Semantic Services

A system Service that continuously runs and/or provides access to Semantic Analysis and Semantic Inference. Dealing with natural language in SAM involves the inclusion of linguistic and semantic services in the architecture. The Semantic Services component will be used as a stand-alone service providing Semantic and Natural Language Processing (NLP) facilities to different components of the SAM Platform.

This component will include services and interfaces to access external and internal semantic resources used to annotate and classify Assets. It will also receive information from the client platform through intermediary SAM components, and based on the context, it will provide suggestions about what content Assets can fit along with the data requested. Based on the context (consumed Assets, language, metadata, etc.) it will be able to identify related Assets to recommend to the final user.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Asset Discovery, Data Characterisation,Semantic Resources,Semantic Resources Explorer,Sentiment Analysis andText Summarisation.

This Component has the following user interfaces: Asset Profiler.

Example: Apple Siri contains a Service that analyses input and attempts to answer to the respective requests and/or commands identified.

Sentiment Analysis

Sentiment Analysis (also known as Opinion Mining) refers to the use of NLP techniques to obtain subjective information from text. It is commonly used to analyse the comments that people post on Social Networks. Sentiment Analysis allows knowing the preferences and criteria of users about situations, events, products, brands, etc. In the SAM platform, Sentiment Analysis is employed to analyse user's Comments in order to identify positive or negative reactions to the Consumed Assets.

This Subcomponent is part of Semantic Services component. Identifies sentiment polarities (positive or negative sentiments) and their intensity (the strength of the feeling expressed) in text. As a result, different sentiment polarities, emotions labels and intensity values will be provided.

Example: A User can Comment on a new album, using Sentiment Analysis to classify this utterance as positive, negative or neutral. It could also be classified according to emotional states such as sadness, enjoyment, anger, and happiness.

Sentiment Analysis Controller

This Subcomponent is part of the Social Mining component. This subcomponent coordinated by the Social Mining Controller will receive orders and input data necessary to exploit all sentiment analysis functionalities with regard to the Semantic Services component.

Service

A software interface which offers information. This information can be processed by the requesting software Component.

Example: A payment Service offers online Services for accepting electronic payments by a variety of payment methods including credit card, bank-based payments such as direct debit, bank transfer, and real-time bank transfer based on online banking.

Service Borkerage

A broker system that allows a collection of services to be provided for a fee or commission.

Service Interaction

Any interaction or communication, like screen swapping and synchronisation between the SAM Platform and 1st Screen and 2nd Screen devices and Dashboards via the Multi-device UI.

Example: Kate found an interesting video on the 2nd Screen and wants to view it on the 1st Screen, so she uses the screen swapping function and the video starts to play on her 1st Screen.

Service Manager

The manager of a software, media or commercial Service who is legally responsible for this Service.

Example: Users can contact the Service Manager in case of a complaint.

Service Provider

An entity that provides organisations or individuals with commercial Services, usually in the context of a third party or outsourced supplier usually in telecommunications, application Service suppliers, storage Service suppliers (Cloud) or Internet Service supplier, or in the case of the SAM Platform for Users, both End Users and Business Users.

Example: Application Service Providers, Network Service Providers, Internet Service Providers, Managed Service Providers, Storage Service Providers, Telecommunications Service Providers, and Online Service Providers. A Service Provider for multiscreen media productions would offer a 2nd Screen consulting and production Service to a Broadcaster.

Shared Content

A Content item which has been distributed to another User, usually associated with an implicit or explicit Recommendation ("have a look at this").

Example: A Social Media User retweets a tweet in order to recommend it to other Twitter users.

SLA

Stands for Service-Level Agreement. SLA is a part of a service contract where a service is formally defined. In practice, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service or performance).

SMART

Stands for Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant and Time-bound. SMART gives criteria to guide in the setting of objectives, for example in project management, employee performance management and personal development. The letters "S" and "M" usually mean "Specific" and "Measurable". The other letters have meant different things to different authors.

Smart Phone

A smartphone (or smart phone) is a mobile phone with more advanced computing capability and connectivity than basic feature phones.

Smart TV

A smart TV, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, (not to be confused with IPTV, Internet TV, or with Web TV) is a television set or set-top box with integrated Internet and Web 2.0 features, and is an example of technological convergence between computers and television sets and set-top boxes.

SME

Stands for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises. SMEs or Small and Medium-sized Businesses (SMBs) are companies whose personnel numbers fall below certain limits.

SMS

Short Messaging Service (SMS) is a text messaging service and uses terrestrial or mobile phone devices to pass and exchange short messages via text.

SMTP

The Simple Mail Transport Protocol is one of the basic protocols used on the Internet. It is used for transporting email across Internet infrastructures.

SNA

Stands for Social Network Analysis. SNA is the analysis of Social Networks. Social Network Analysis views social relationships in terms of network theory, consisting of nodes (representing individual actors within the network) and ties (which represent relationships between the individuals, such as friendship, kinship, organisations, sexual relationships, etc.). These networks are often depicted in a Social Network diagram, where nodes are represented as points and ties are represented as lines.

SOA

Stands for Service-Oriented Architecture. SOA is a software design and software architecture design pattern based on discrete pieces of software providing application functionality as services to other applications.

Social Mining Controller

This Subcomponent is part of Social Mining component. This subcomponent will retrieve UGC (i.e. textual data gathered from user’s social interaction) from the Cloud Storage given a query, and will proceed to plan and manage overall Sentiment Analysis and Semantic Processes, based on the reports from the Business Intelligence subcomponent

SOCIOS

Stands for Social Internet of Services. SOCIOS is an European Project to exploit Social Networks for Building the Future Internet of Services.

Social Communities

A Community of persons, usually established and interacting online.

Example: A group of people interacting on a fly fishing online forum.

Social Components

Social Components allows the interaction with social networks in SAM platform. This Component provides connections and interaction with different social networks such as Facebook, Twitter, etc.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Access Service, Asset Service, Local Information Cache, Search Aggregation, Social Components Service, Social Feedback Mining, Social Interaction Logic, Social Network API, Social Network communication.

Social Components Service

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. This subcomponent will be responsible for providing interaction between the Generic Dashboard component and the Social Components. It will be able to provide access to the supported Social Networks and its content to the End User.

Social Data Listener

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent receives messages sent and received together with social network interactions made by the user from the Social Components.

Social Feedback Mining

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. The subcomponent will provide shared user-generated content to the Context Control component. Additionally it will relay the relevant User Generated Data to the Cloud Storage, so that it can be analysed afterwards by the Social Mining features

Social Interaction Logic

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. This subcomponent will contain the business logic and algorithms needed to fulfil certain requests and will handle the collaboration of the different subcomponents.

Social Media

Social Media is defined as a group of Internet-based applications that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content, giving users an easy way to communicate with each other.

Social Media User

An End User who creates and/or consumes Content published on social media platforms connected to SAM.

Example: Active usage involves a User posting a tweet on Twitter or a comment on Facebook, uploading a video on YouTube or a photo on Instagram. Passive usage involves a User reading content such as Facebook profiles, Twitter streams or YouTube channels.

Social Mining

The field devoted to applying Data Mining techniques to Social Media analysis, including the discovery and analysis of communities, user behavior and social network modelling. In SAM, from the Content Provider point of view, Social Networks are a vast field to be explored. Information and feedback in these mechanisms are very valuable, not only from the point of view of the references, but also of the opinion. SAM will exploit Social Mining applying Sentiment Analysis and Automatic Summarisation in order to provide the most appropriate feedback to the Content Providers.

Example: Detecting trends in Twitter is an example of Social Mining.

Social Mining Component

This Subcomponent is part of Analytics component.This subcomponent is in charge of providing Social Mining features, in order to enrich the feedback with qualitative information. It will provide Sentiment Analysis. Data Summarisation and other advanced techniques to the BI subcomponent allowing that the Content Broker and Content Broadcaster can define, for instance, reports with information about the user’s perception for a brand, actor, etc…

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Characterisation Controller, Sentiment Analysis Controller, Social Mining Controller.

Social Network

A network of connected actors. While the term Social Network refers to a wide range of networks of connected actors and does not presuppose any specific use of technology, a Social Network in SAM is considered to be a Social Network of persons that is mediated through a technical system.

Example: Facebook is the currently best-known example of an online Social Network.

Social Network API

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. An external system, which will allow the interaction with the according Social Network, e.g. Facebook, Twitter. It will provide methods to communicate (retrieve and send different kind of information) with

Social Network Communication

This Subcomponent is part of Social Components component. The subcomponent Social Network communication is responsible for the interaction with the external social networks.

Social Network Connector

A software Component that provides a suitable Interface to a specific Social Network.

Example: A connector that lets a system read User data, User posts and friend connections from Facebook.

Social TV

The use of social media whilst watching or interacting with television programmes.

Software Provider

An entity specialised in creating or selling software designed for niche or mass market, targeting business or private customers.

Example: Examples include software producers such as IBM, Microsoft, Oracle SAS etc. who license application-specific or embedded software to others.

SPARQL

Recursive acronym for SPARQL Protocol and RDF Query Language. SPARQL is an RDF query language, that is, a query language for databases able to retrieve and manipulate data stored in RDF.

Speech Synthesis

The conversion of a piece of information into verbal output. The information has to be in natural language format. It is one of the modes that modern multi-modal interfaces use in order to communicate with the End User. SAM will use Speech Synthesis as an additional method of interaction.

Example: The system needs to know about the age of the End User so the string "what is your age" is given to the speech synthesizer so that it can utter it.

Sprint

A Sprint is part of the SCRUM methodology and describes a period in which specific tasks will be worked on by a SCRUM team.

Sprint Planning

A Sprint Planning is a meeting on which the responsible SCRUM team decides which tasks the developers will work on within the period of the Sprint. It represents the start of the Sprint.

Sprint Review

A Sprint Review is a meeting which will be conducted at the end of the Sprint. The SCRUM team recapitulates the Sprint, evaluates the results and discusses problems which had arisen.

SSH

SSH or Secure Shell is a network protocol which allows an encrypted and secure connection between two devices.

Stakeholder

A person, group or organization that has interest or concern in SAM or whose business can be affected with the application of SAM technologies.

Example: Some examples of key Stakeholders are creditors, directors, employees, government (and its agencies), owners (shareholders), suppliers, unions, and the community from which the business draws its resources.

STASIS

Stands for SofTware for Ambient Semantic Interoperable Services. STASIS is a Research and Development project sponsored under the Europeans Commission's 6th Framework programme as well as its projects members. Its objective is for research, development and validation of open, web based, distributed semantic services for SME empowerment within the Automotive, Furniture and other sectors.

Storage Facade

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. The subcomponent Storage Facade is the public interface of the Cloud Storage component.

Storage Management

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. The subcomponent Storage Management of Cloud Storage encapsulates the logic for all configurations for the Cloud Storage and the external databases for the user data.

Storage Nexus

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. The subcomponent Storage Nexus is the heart of the CSC: it controls the processes for data management as well as the management of the Cloud Storage itself.

Storage Services

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. Retrieve and manipulate data of the CSC.

Storage Wrapper

This Subcomponent is part of Cloud Storage component. The subcomponent Storage Wrapper of the Cloud Storage manages the actual access to the databases where the data will be stored.

Street Date

The date on which the Licensor first makes a title available to the public in a specific format. For physical media that cannot be made available to merchants at the same time, Street Date refers to the date at which the various merchants agree to make it available to their customers in order to ensure a level playing field, enable targeted promotions and avoid customer confusion as to availability.

STREP

Stands for Specific Targeted Research Project. STREP represents Medium-sized research projects funded by the European Commission in the FP6 and FP7 funding programs. STREP projects are composed by a minimum of 3 partners coming from 3 different countries from Associated states. The typical duration of such projects is 2 to 3 years. In FP6, they generally involved between 6 and 15 partners. The budget granted by the Commission is in average around €2 million.

Subsystem

A system that is part of some larger system, or it can also mean the coherent and somewhat independent Component of a larger system.

Example: In a human respiratory system, circulate system, nervous system, reproductive system, etc.

SUMO

Stands for Suggested Upper Merged Ontology. SUMO is an upper Ontology intended as a foundation Ontology for a variety of computer information processing systems.

SVOD

Stands for Subscription Video on Demand. For a fixed fee, subscribers may have unlimited access to identified streaming content during a specific time period during which the subscription is active, usually one month at a time. See also VOD.

SWOT Analysis

A study to indentify a company's Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats in a project or business venture.

Sync

This Subcomponent is part of 1st Screen component. The Sync subcomponent is an component which can have different levels of implementation.

Synchronous

Synchronous execution applies to events/processes are executed sequentially, in series, with the next event/processes only being executed when the previous has completed. This is opposed to Asynchronous execution.

Example Blocking IO is an example synchronous execution.

Syndicator

This Component is part of Content Syndication system and it provides the mechanism so that Complex Assets can be Discovered, associated to the User activity and delivered in the expected format to be consumed in the User Context.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Data Services API and Multi-device Representation.

Example: The Content Providers information finds the User rather than the User finding the Content. This allows more targeted marketing/selling/information sharing.

Syndicator API

This Subcomponent is part of Data Services API component. Once the information is generated, Syndicator API syndicates the information into Dashboard or 3rd Party Apps.

Syndication Actor

The Set of SAM components that include Generic Dashboard Component, SAM Federated Instances and 3rd Party Apps.

Syndication Controllers

This Subcomponent is part of Data Services API component. To communicate with the different SAM components it is necessary to implement controllers to manage the interaction with them.

Syndication Generator

This Subcomponent is part of Data Services API component. The task of this component is to generate the information in the suitable format to be syndicated. The Syndication Generator receives the assets from the manager and the necessary information to represent it from Multi-Device component.

Syndication Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Data Services API component. This subcomponent is in charge of controlling the interaction of the component with the different sources and components needed during the data extraction and delivery.

Syndicator Listener

This Subcomponent is part of Marketplace component. This subcomponent will act as Syndicator request listener. Once received the request, the Syndicator Listener will provide the assets and services that the Syndicator could need.

Syntactic Data Analysis

A NLP technique for processing natural language information in order to identify the structural elements of the sentence. It is based on different types of grammar theories, such as categorial grammar and dependency grammar. The fist one extracts syntactic categories such as the traditional part of speech (e.g. noun, verb, preposition, etc.). The second one is an approach to sentence structure where syntactic units are arranged according to the dependency relation, as opposed to the constituency relation of phrase structure grammars. Dependencies are directed links between words. The (finite) verb is seen as the root of all clause structure and all the other words in the clause are either directly or indirectly dependent on this root.

Example: Tasks related to Syntactic Data Analysis include the identification of phrases, word groupings, part of speech, and dependency trees.

System Identity Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component. The System Identity Manager provides functionalities to authenticate system components; it uses a Certificate Manager to verify certificates provided by system components.

Tablet

A tablet computer, or simply tablet, is a mobile computer with display, circuitry and battery in a single unit.

Text-to-Speech

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. The Text-to-Speech (TTS) component in SAM receives a text string and utters it via audio. The TTS is used on demand by the Voice Dialogue through Generation subcomponent and it is treated as a black box, meaning that no interference is made into its internal processes.

TDM

Stands for Talkamatic Dialogue Manager. Talkamatic provides easy-to-use natural Dialogue systems based on research on human dialogue.

TDM Resources

This Subcomponent is part of Voice Dialogue component. This subcomponent will essentially allow exchange of information with other widgets that will be running at the same ti

Text Summarisation

This Subcomponent is part of Semantic Services component. This subcomponent synthesises input texts using Natural Language Technologies. The input texts could be summarised to different target lengths in order to provide them as summaries to the Analytics component.

TPMA

Stands for Through Partner Marketing Automation.

Through Partner Marketing Automation

See Marketing Automation.

Transformation

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it will be used by the Routing subcomponent in order to execute the transformations between different messages and data formats.

Transactional VOD

Stands for Transactional Video on Demand. A digital rental of a program for a specified viewing period (such as 24 or 48 hours) for viewing by the consumer when the consumer wants to watch it. See also VOD.

Trust Management

The representation, maintenance and usage of technical and/or social trust measures to aid in security-relevant Decision Making.

Example: The WS-Trust standard defines trust mechanisms for Web services including mechanisms for the exchange and validation of secure keys.

Trust Policy

A set of conditions, terms or regulations governing trust and privacy issues, especially as to data made available through Social Networks. This can relate to the publishing as well as to the consuming side.

Example: A Trust Policy can determine rules on tagging people in pictures or on who can comment on a blog.

Trustworthy and Secure Market Framework

The target framework to be achieved with the help of trust and security.

Example: The eBay market place, which combines security features and Identity Management functionalities including secure payment with trust and reputation mechanisms for traders.

Trustworthy Information

Information that comes from a reputable and trustworthy source, such as an opinion former who is known to give opinions which can be considered trusted by the SAM Platform.

Example: News agencies provide Trustworthy Information.

TSB

Stands for TIE SmartBridge. TSB is TIE's ESB product which allow the communication between SAM Components.

TTS

Stands for Text-to-Speech.

TV Everywhere

A multi-screen, subscription-based television content service, in which satellite, Telco or cable television customers can access TV content via devices such as tablets, smart phones and game consoles. Television Service Providers are able to authenticate paying customers before allowing access to their IPTV video on demand Internet television services.

UGC

Stands for User-Generated Content. UGC in SAM refers to all data originating from the End User.

Example: UGC includes phrases, sentences, and metadata labels such as keywords which describe an Asset, where named entities, events, etc. are involved.

UI

See User Interface.

Ultra HD

Ultra High Definition TV which is also know as 4K. The 4K industry standard resolution is 4096 x 2160 (at a 19:10 or 1.9:1 aspect ratio).

UltraViolet

An ecosystem for interoperable electronic content. UltraViolet is a branded set of specifications and agreements along with a centralised rights clearinghouse that allows retailers to sell movies that play on UltraViolet-compatible players and services.

UMA

Stands for Universal Multimedia Access. UMA addresses the delivery of multimedia resources under different and varying network conditions, diverse terminal equipment capabilities, specific user or creator preferences, and needs and usage environment conditions.

UMID

Stands for Universal Media ID. An item number unique among all assets to an individual digital asset.

UML

Stands for Unified Modeling Language. UML is a modelling language standard developed in software engineering to visually display and enable system designs.

UPnP

Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) is a set of networking protocols that permits networked devices, such as personal computers, printers, Internet gateways, Wi-Fi access points and mobile devices to seamlessly discover each other's presence on the network and establish functional network services for data sharing, communications, and entertainment. UPnP is intended primarily for residential networks without enterprise-class devices.

Undesirable Content

Content items which are either unsuitable for certain categories of End Users or which have undesirable qualities (e.g., offensive, profane, intolerant, hurtful, inciteful, bigoted, homophobic or illegal).

Example: Undesirable Content should be filtered out where possible for all End Users or certain affected groups of End Users (e.g., children).

UPC

Stands for Universal Product Code. UPC is a barcode symbology (i.e., a specific type of barcode) that is widely used in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand and in other countries for tracking trade items in stores.

URI

Stands for Uniform Resource Identifier. In computing, a URI is a string of characters used to identify a name of a web resource. Such identification enables interaction with representations of the web resource over a network (typically the World Wide Web) using specific protocols. Schemes specifying a concrete syntax and associated protocols define each URI.

Use Case

A use case in software- and systems engineering is a description of a behaviour of a system as a result of an action originating from outside the system. UML can be used to describe a use case.

Example: That document contains UML figures that describe the use cases necessary to implement the Interconnected Bus.

User

An entity (can be a real person but also a business) interacting with the SAM Platform.

Example: Content Providers, Broadcasters, advertising agencies, music companies, studios, app developers, 2nd Screen app developers, as well as individuals.

User Content Protection

A scheme which ensures that the content provided by users to a platform is protected from inappropriate distribution or manipulation.

Example: The terms and conditions of a digital platform to which users upload content provides a User Content Protection Scheme.

User Context

The context of a User while consuming media items/services.

Example: An End User is viewing a video related to his main hobby (personal preference context) on his smartphone (device context) while he is in a pub with friends (social context).

User Data Listener

This Subcomponent is part of Context Control component. This subcomponent receives data entered by the user and data on user interaction behaviour from the Dashboard.

User Identity Manager

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component. The subcomponent is concerned with the management of user identities; it uses an external OpenID provider for authentication.

User Interface

A graphical Interface by which SAM Users interact with a Device which can be a 1st Screen, a 2nd Screen or an editor (Asset Editor, Content Editor, etc.).

Example: The browser software you are using at the moment to view this Wiki provides you a User Interface to interact with this website.

User Policy

A published principle related to the treatment and rights of users of a platform. See Privacy and Confidentiality Policy.

User Preference

The experience, object, Service or Content that an End User makes a conscious decision to choose, select, highlight, purchase or download, based on User Preferences which have been stated by the End User or learned by a machine based on the User's consumption and which define how the SAM Platform interacts with the User.

Example: A User may have account preferences for payments, or for format of data, or permissions, or email preferences or may wish to only receive information linked to a chosen subject such as a TV programming preference for watching American movies, sport and political documentaries.

User Profile

The type (business or individual), age, gender, location, payment details where necessary, and contact details if needed of the user. Each user has a User Profile indicating the functions the user can perform and indicating the user's privileges based on the behavioural profile in a media consumption context.

Example: An example could be a 25-year-old male, described as lean forward and interactive, living in London who enjoys watching sport, films, American TV series and documentaries, and enjoys interacting with friends while watching TV.

User Stories

In software development and product management, a user story is one or more sentences in the everyday or business language of the end user or user of a system that captures what a user does or needs to do as part of his or her job function. User stories are used with agile software.

Example: When user stories are about to be implemented, the developers should have the possibility to talk to the customer about it.

Validation Authority

This Subcomponent is part of Identity and Security Services component. This external service provides certificate validation functionalities for security certificates and keys.

VIAF

Stands for Virtual International Authority File number. The aim of VIAF is to link the national authority files (such as the German Name Authority File) to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together. A VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary "see" and "see also" records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records.

Video Viewer

This User Interface is part of Generic Dashboard component. The Video Viewer displays the main video, streamed from an external server. It includes the ability to control the video, e.g. jump to a certain scene in the video.

Viral License

A viral licence, also referred to as an infectious license, is a type of copyright licence that requires that derivative work also be licensed with a compatible license. Since this implies that the licence will spread to all derived work, the term viral is applicable. Practically, this can be problematic when software is derived from multiple source with incompatible licenses. Licenses that are not considered viral, can be called non-viral or non-infecting.

Example: The GNU General Public License and the Create Commons Attribution-ShareAlike are considered viral licenses.

Visualisation Adapter

This Component is activated whenever specific media representation configurations are absent. It uses templates and Device Specifications to determine the most appropriate way of representation.

Example: Due to the fact that the Device in use is a Galaxy Nexus, SAM can find no pre-generated configuration files. Thus, Device characteristics such as screen size and input units are used to determine the most appropriate mode of presentation.

Visualise

The process of visualising an Asset showing their Content, Metadata, and associated Assets in case being the result of an Asset Aggregation and Composition process.

Example: A Widget presenting on the 2nd Screen Dashboard of the User related products and facts to the movie the User is watching on his/her 1st Screen.

VOD

Stands for Video on Demand. Content either streamed or downloaded to a device such as a computer or set-top box for viewing by the consumer when the consumer wants to watch it. This content may be owned by the consumer or may have been rented for a limited period or number of plays (Transactional VOD).

Voice Dialogue

This Subcomponent is part of 2nd Screen component. The Voice Dialogue subcomponent will enable voice interaction support in the SAM 2nd Screen and consists of a series of subcomponents that break the dialogue process between the end-user and SAM into smaller discrete parts.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Dialogue Move Engine (DME), ASR Component, Generation, GUI Interpretation, GUI Output Planner, Information State, Interpretation Component, TDM Resources and TTS.

Voice Recognition

The conversion of verbal User input into a coherent piece of natural language. An integral part of Dialogue systems which become in their turn an increasingly important element of modern UIs. Within SAM, advanced techniques such as goal elicitation will be used to provide the User with easy to build and context aware data Assets sets and configuration. Voice Recognition will be used by SAM as an additional mode of User interaction with the Multi-device UI.

Example: The User says "Show me my posts" and the system's voice recognizer converts it to a "show me my posts" string.

W3C

Stands for World Wide Web Consortium. W3C is the main international standards organization for the World Wide Web.

Waterfall

Waterfall is a common design process in the software development context in which the common phases and the containing tasks are executed in a sequential manner, just like a waterfall.

Web Data Extraction

This Subcomponent is part of Content Gateways component. This subcomponent implements functionality to extract data from external resources, such as social media services or Wikipedia, taking into account that this extracted information could be unstructured, structured or semi-

Web Scraping

Also called 'web harvesting' or 'web data extraction', web scraping is a computer software technique of extracting structured data from unstructured sources on the internet, usually directly from HTML. Examples of web scraping include, on-line price comparison, contact scraping, weather data monitoring and website change detection.

WordNet

A lexical database for the English language. WordNet groups English words into sets of synonyms called synsets, provides short, general definitions, and records the various Semantic Relations between these synonym sets.

WP

Stands for Work Package. In project management, a WP is a subset of a project that can be assigned to a specific part for execution. Because of the similarity, WPs are often misidentified as projects.

Widget

A Component of a visual User Interface, e.g., a website or a mobile application. From a structural view a Widget consists of a window, a visible area which the User can interact with, and a non-visible area which stores the state of the Component and communicate with the User Interface. In websites, Widgets mostly consist of small code fragments using HTML and Javascript.

Example: The Twitter Widget on the SAM website is a Widget, which shows actual tweets marked with the 2nd Screen hashtag #secondscreen.

Widget Manager

This User Interface is part of Generic Dashboard component. The Widget Manager is a container for the management, visualisation and synchronisation of widgets.

This Component is composed of the following subcomponents: Widget Workspace Manager.

Widget Workspace Manager

This User Interface is part of Widget Manager component. The Widget Workspace Manager will allow the user to configure the set of widgets and its distribution along the Widget Manager.

Wiki

Web application which allows people to add, modify, or delete content in collaboration with others. This is a Wiki.

Workflow Editor

This User Interface is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is the graphical User Interface to define and configure the orchestration steps including the configuration of the different services or processes to be executed in the Interconnection Bus.

Workflow Processor

This Subcomponent is part of Interconnection Bus component and it is in charge of controlling and orchestrating the different services and actions described through the Workflow Editor, e.g. before delivering a message, for instance, specific transformations, access to SAM Component services, digital signature services, etc.

XML

Stands for Extensible Markup Language. XML is a markup language that defines a set of rules for encoding documents in a format that is both human-readable and machine-readable.

XMP

Stands for Extensible Metadata Platform. XMP standardises a data model, a serialization format and core properties for the definition and processing of extensible Metadata.